Hadith on Compassion: The Basic Dictates of Love, Compassion, and Mercy

By Sheikh Salman Al-Oadah at IslamToday.net

Nu’man ibn Bashir reported: The Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, said:

مَثَلُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فِي تَوَادِّهِمْ وَتَرَاحُمِهِمْ وَتَعَاطُفِهِمْ مَثَلُ الْجَسَدِ إِذَا اشْتَكَى مِنْهُ عُضْوٌ تَدَاعَى لَهُ سَائِرُ الْجَسَدِ بِالسَّهَرِ وَالْحُمَّى

The parable of the believers in their affection, mercy, and compassion for each other is that of a body; when any limb of it aches, the whole body reacts with sleeplessness and fever.

[Sahih Muslim, Book 32, Number 6258]

We all know this famous hadith. But what does is it saying is require from us?

The qualities of love, mercy and compassion are similar in meaning. There are various ways to understand the difference between them.

It might be understood that the difference between these feelings are related to the state of the one who experiences them. Love is an emotion that is felt in the heart for the other person persistently and under changing circumstances. Mercy and compassion, by contrast, are felt towards the other person at times when that other person is in a state of weakness.

Alternatively, it might be said that we feel love for those who are our family and friends, mercy for others whom we are able to help, and compassion for those whose misfortunes are outside of our ability to help, and for whom we can only feel in our hearts. In this case, there are three levels of feeling. The most particular is that of love. Mercy comes next, and compassion is the third in ranking.

These are just two of the possible ways of distinguishing between the feelings of love, mercy, and compassion.

Moreover, these feelings translate into words and actions. The love and affection that Muslims must harbor in their hearts for their fellow Muslims should cause them to harbor no malice towards them and to hold no grudges. It should help them to avoid beings suspicious of each other.

Compassion dictates that Muslims should share in each other’s joys and sorrows. When a Muslim learns of something good that has befallen another, it is an occasion to rejoice. Likewise, the pain of Muslims anywhere in the world who have been stricken by tragedy should be felt. Muslims should feel the pain when their fellow Muslims are struck down in the road, when Muslim women are being raped or when a Muslim country is attacked of hit with a natural disaster.

A believing heart cannot help but feel this pain. Indeed, we must feel the pain when any human being, regardless of their faith, is stricken by injustice or misfortune.

Grief and commiseration is the least of our obligations towards our fellow Muslims – and to humanity at large – in times of hardship. Allah has not commanded us merely to feel grief, but to carry out good works and provide relief. However, such grief can inspire us to noble actions.

At the very least, we should pray to Allah for those in need. Praying for them is not a minor thing. Allah might remove some affliction that the Muslims are facing on account of your prayer. Allah commands us in the Qur’an to pray to Him and tells us that he will answer our prayers.

ادْعُونِي أَسْتَجِبْ لَكُمْ

Call upon Me in prayer; I will answer you.

[Surah Al-Ghafir 40:60]

The Prophet, peace be upon him, said:

الدُّعَاءُ هُوَ الْعِبَادَةُ

Supplication is worship.

[Sunan At-Tirmidhi, Book of Exegesis, Number 3247, Sahih]

These inner feelings of love, mercy, and compassion that we are talking about need to be expressed by our words, or they will fade away in our hearts. Like Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, said:

وَالْكَلِمَةُ الطَّيِّبَةُ صَدَقَةٌ

A good word is a form of charity.

[Sahih Muslim, Book 5, Number 2204]

Many people ask for no more than a word of support or encouragement. Sometimes a little commiseration is all that is needed. A person who is stingy with words is a miser indeed. The least we can manage is to speak the truth publicly and offer prayers for our fellow Muslims when we are alone.

Today, the media and the virtual world of the Internet give us so many opportunities to make a difference with our words and to impact positively on public opinion. It may be that an idea that begins on television, or on a website, or on Facebook, may ultimately have an effect on the policies of governments, international organizations, and humanitarian NGOs.

(www.faithinallah.org / 15.11.2012)

Hadith 12: Het laten van datgene wat je niets aangaat

Aboe Hoerayrah overlevert: “De Profeet  zei:
“Wat blijk geeft van iemands goede Islam, is dat hij datgene laat wat hem niet aangaat.”  

(Een goede overlevering. Overgeleverd door at-Tirmidhi en anderen)


Deze overlevering is één van de grondslagen van de Islamitische gedragscode en is een leidraad voor iedere moslim. De moslim wordt geacht zichzelf niet te vermoeien met datgene wat hem niet aangaat en dient zich alleen te concentreren op zijn eigen zaken.


Wat leert deze overlevering ons?


  • De mate waarin de regels van de Islam worden nageleefd, kan van persoon tot persoon verschillen. Het laten van datgene wat een persoon niet aangaat, geeft blijk van iemands goede Islam.
  • Het zich niet bezig houden met andermans zaken stelt de dienaar in staat om zijn tijd beter te gebruiken voor bijvoorbeeld het aanbidden van Allah.

(moslima.ansaar.nl / 06.01.2012)

Hadeeth 32 : No Harming nor Reciprocating Harm

On the authority of Abu Sa’eed Sa’ad bin Sinaan al-Khudree (radiAllaahu anhu) that the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) said :

There should be neither harming [darar] nor reciprocating harm [diraar].
A Hasan hadeeth related by Ibn Maajah, ad-Daaraqutnee and others as a musnad hadeeth. It was also related by Maalik in al-Muwatta in mursal form from ‘Amr bin Yahyaa, from his father from the Prophet (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam), but leaving Abu Sa’eed from the chain. And it has other chains of narrations that strengthen one another.

Explanation of Hadeeth Number 32
Know that he who harms his brother has oppressed him, and oppression is Prohibited [Haraam], as has preceeded in the hadeeth of Abu Dharr (radiAllaahu anhu) : “O My servants ! I have forbidden dhulm (oppression) for Myself, and I have made it forbidden amongst you, so do not oppress one another”, and the Prophet (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) has said : “Verily your blood [ie lives] and your property and your honour are all Sacred/Prohibited”. And he said this on many occasions, including the Sermon he gave at the Farewell Hajj.

And as for his (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) statement “There should be neither ‘darar’ nor ‘diraar'” then some of the ‘ulamaa have said that these are two words which have the same meaning, and they have been used together as a form of emphasis.

And Ibn Habeeb (rahimahu Allaah) said : “According to the scholars of the Arabic language, ad-darar refers to the noun and ad-diraar refers to the action/verb, and so the meaning of ‘no darar’ is that none of you should harm any other with something that they have not harmed you with first. And the meaning of ‘no diraar’ is that none of you should harm any other at all.”

And al-Muhsinee (rahimahu Allaah) said : “ad-darar is that by which you attain benefit, but in it is harm for your neighbour”, and this is a good understanding of a nuance of the meaning. And other scholars have said : “ad-darar and ad-diraar are similar to al-qatal [murder] and al-qitaal [fighting one another], so ad-darar is that you harm one who has not harmed you, while ad-diraar is that you harm one who also harms you in a way that is not responding equally or taking revenge rightfully”, and this is similar to his (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) statement “Return the Trusts given to you, to those who entrusted them to you, and do not betray the one who betrays you” [Hasan Ghareeb, narrated by at-Tirmidhee]. And the meaning of this according to some of the ‘ulamaa is that one must not betray the one who betrays, after one has already taken revenge or sought justice for his betrayal. And so it is as though the forbiddance here is upon initiating an injustice or harm, while the one who seeks revenge with the equal of what he has been harmed with, and who takes his Right, then he is not considered to be a betrayer. Rather, the betrayer is he who takes that which does not belong to him or more than that which is rightfully his.

And the Jurists [fuqahaa’] have differed over the one who refuses to fulfill the rights/trusts that others have upon him, such that the entruster forcibly takes the wealth that he had entrusted to him. So some of the scholars have said : “It is not correct for him to [forcibly] take what is his right due to what is apparent from his (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) statement “Return the Trusts, and do not betray the one who betrays you”. On the other hand, other scholars have said : “It is permissible for him to take revenge from the one who has betrayed him, and to forcibly take what is due to him from the hand of his betrayer” and they use as proof the hadeeth narrated by ‘Aaishah (radiAllaahu anhaa) regarding the incident involving Hind and her husband Abu Sufyaan, wherein Hind said to the Prophet (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) “O Messenger of Allaah ! Verily Abu Sufyaan is a stingy/tight-fisted man, and he does not give to me what is sufficient for myself and my child, unless I take it from him secretly.” So the Prophet (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) replied : “Take [from his wealth] what is sufficient for you and your child, but with justice” [narrated by Muslim]. And in this issue the fuqahaa’ have mentioned many points and fine issues that cannot be mentioned here.

And what is correct from an examination of all the evidences is that it is not correct for someone to harm his brother, whether he has harmed him or not, except if he avenges himself to the extent that Justice allows him to [ie equally], and this is not considered to be oppression nor harm, as long at is in a fashion that the Sunnah makes permissible for him.

And the Shaykh Abu ‘Amr bin as-Salaah (rahimahu Allaah) has said that [the famous hadeeth scholar] ad-Daaraqutnee has collected a number of chains of narration of this hadeeth which strengthen one another, and thus raise it to the level of being Hasan [Sound, acceptable], and it has been transmitted and used as proof by the vast majority of the ‘ulamaa, and [the hadeeth scholar] Abu Daawood said : “The Knowledge of Fiqh revolves around five ahaadeeth”, and he counted this hadeeth amongst them. So Shaykh Abu ‘Amr said that the fact that Abu Daawood counted this hadeeth amongst the five, and his other statements about it, show that he did not consider it to be a Da’eef [Weak, unreliable] hadeeth, and he said about it that ad-diraar is similar to al-qitaal, and this is what is upon the Sunnah. And many of the scholars of Fiqh and Hadeeth have also narrated this hadeeth as “There should be neither darar nor idraar”, but this wording has no basis.

And Allaah knows best.

Summary :
That it is forbidden to harm others
That it is forbidden to transgress against those who harm us

الحديث الثاني والثلاثون : لا ضرر ولا ضرار

عن أبي سعيد سعد بن سنان الخدري رضي الله عنه : أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال : ( لا ضرر ولا ضرار ) ، حديث حسن ، رواه ابن ماجة و الدارقطني وغيرهما مسندا . ورواه مالك في الموطأ مرسلا : عن عمروا بن يحيى ، عن أبيه عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم . فأسقط أبا سعيد . وله طرق يقوي بعضها بعضا .


امتازت قواعد الشريعة الإسلامية بشموليتها واتساع معناها ، بحيث يستطيع المرء أن يعرف من خلالها الحكم الشرعي لكثير من المسائل التي تندرج تحتها ، ومن جملة تلك القواعد العظيمة ، ما ورد من قول النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم : ( لا ضرر ولا ضرار ) ، فإن هذا الحديث على قصره يدخل في كثير من الأحكام الشرعية ، ويبيّن السياج المحكم الذي بنته الشريعة لضمان مصالح الناس ، في العاجل والآجل .

وإذا عدنا إلى لفظ الحديث ، فإننا نجد أنه قد نفى الضرر أولا ، ثم نفى الضرار ثانيا ، وهذا يشعرنا بوجود فرق بين معنى الضرر ومعنى الضرار ، وقد ذكر العلماء كلاما مطولا حول ذلك ، وأقرب تصوّر لمعنى الكلمتين : أن نفي الضرر إنما قُصد به عدم وجود الضرر فيما شرعه الله لعباده من الأحكام ، وأما نفي الضرار : فأُريد به نهي المؤمنين عن إحداث الضرر أو فعله .

ومن هنا ، فإن نفي الضرر يؤكد أن الدين الإسلامي يرسّخ معاني الرحمة والتيسير ، وعدم تكليف الإنسان ما لا يطيق ، فلا يمكن أن تجد في أحكامه أمراً بما فيه مضرّة ، أو نهياً عن شيء يحقق المصلحة الراجحة ، وإذا نظرت إلى ما جاء تحريمه في القرآن الكريم أو في السنة النبوية فلابد أن تجد فيه خبثا ومفسدة ، مصداقا لقوله تعالى : { ويحرّم عليهم الخبائث } ( الأعراف : 157 ) .

ومن ناحية أخرى فإن كل ما ورد في الكتاب والسنة من أوامر ، فالأصل أنها مقدورة ، داخلة ضمن حدود الطاقة ، وإذا عرض للإنسان أحوال تمنعه من إتمام الامتثال بالأمر الشرعي ، كأن يلمّ به مرض أو عجز أو نحوهما ، فهنا يأتي التخفيف من الله تعالى ، كما في رخصة الإفطار في نهار رمضان ، ورخصة الجمع والقصر في الصلاة ، وغير ذلك كثير.

على أن الضرر المنفي في الدين لا يتناول العقوبة والقصاص ؛ لأن عقاب المجرم على جريمته هو السبيل الوحيد الذي يردع الناس عن انتهاك حدود الله ، والاعتداء على حقوق الآخرين ، بل إننا نقول : إن هذه الحدود التي شرعها الله عزوجل هي مقتضى العدل والحكمة ؛ إذ لا يُعقَل أن نغلّب جانب مصلحة الفرد على حساب مصلحة المجتمع كله ، ولا يُعقل أن ننظر بعين العطف على الجاني ، ونتناسى حق من جنى عليهم ، ولذلك يقول الله عزوجل : { ولكم في القصاص حياة يا أولي الألباب لعلكم تتقون } ( البقرة : 179 ) .

ولم يقتصر الحديث على نفي الضرر في الشريعة ، بل أتبعه بالنهي عن إضرار العباد بعضهم لبعض ،  فالمكلف منهي عن كل فعل يترتب عليه إضرار الآخرين ، سواء قصد صاحبه الإضرار أم لم يقصد  .

وهذا أصل عظيم من أصول الدين ؛ فإن الفرد إذا التزم بصيانة حقوق غيره وعدم الإضرار بها ، فإن من شأن ذلك أن تقل المنازعات بين الناس ، فينشأ المجتمع على أساس من الاحترام المتبادل بين أفراده .

أما إذا تخلى الناس عن العمل بهذا المبدأ ، وصار كل إنسان ينظر إلى مصلحته دون أي اعتبار للآخرين ، فهنا تحصل الكارثة ، وتشيع الأنانية المدمرة ، وهذا ما جاء الإسلام بإزالته والقضاء عليه .

لقد حرّم الإسلام الضرار بكل صوره ، وجميع أشكاله ، حتى حرّم الإضرار بالآخرين منذ ولادتهم إلى حين وفاتهم ، بل وبعد موتهم ، فحرّم إضرار الأم بولدها ، كما قال الله تعالى : { لا تضار والدة بولدها } ( البقرة : 233 ) ، وحرّم تغيير الوصية بعد سماعها ، وحرّم إضرار الموصي في وصيّته ، وحفظ للأموات حقوقهم حتى حرّم سب الأموات ، فما أعظمها من شريعة ، وما أحسنه من دين .

(Facebook / 28.08.2011)

De Edele Koran

In Saheeh Muslim, welke één van de twee meest authentieke boeken zijn van overleveringen van de Profeet (salla Allahu ‘alayhi wa salaam) vinden we een mooi verhaal. Er kwamen wat mannen vragen stellen aan ‘Umar bin Al-Khattaab (radya Allahu ‘anhu) tijdens zijn kalifaat. Eén van die vragen ging over de leiderschap van Mekkah. de man vroeg, “Wie liet je Mekkah regeren?” ‘Umar bin Al-Khattaab zei, “Ibn Abzaa.” Zij vroegen toen, “En wie is Ibn Abzaa?” ‘Umar bin Al-Khattaab antwoordde, “Een vrijgelaten slaaf.” Zij waren verbaasd en zeiden, “Je hebt een bevrijde slaaf bevelvoerend over de mensen van de vallei (de nobele stammen van de Quraysh) gemaakt?” ‘Umar bin Al-Khattaab antwoordde, “Inderdaad hij is een (Qari) reciteerder van het boek van Allah (de Qur’an) en hij heeft kennis over de verplichtingen van de Moslims. Hebben jullie niet de verklaring van jullie Boodschapper (salla Allahu ‘alayhi wa salaam) gehoord: “Waarlijk Allah verheft sommige mensen door dit boek (de Qur’an) en laat sommige dalen?” (Overgeleverd in Muslim.) Ook heeft ‘Uthmaan (radya Allahu ‘anhu) overgeleverd dat de Profeet (salla Allahu ‘alayhi wa salaam) zei: “De besten van jullie zijn degenen die de Qur’an leren en die het leren (lesgeven) aan anderen.” (Overgeleverd in Bukhari.)

(http://tl.gd/cfa6ia / 17.08.2011)


“Voorwaar, het wereldse leven behoort slechts toe aan vier soorten mensen:
Een dienaar die van Allah rijkdom en kennis heeft gekregen, waardoor hij zijn Heer vreest, zijn familiebanden onderhoudt en waarvan hij weet dat Allah er recht op heeft. Deze bevindt zich in de hoogste gradaties.
Een dienaar die van Allah kennis gekregen heeft, maar geen rijkdom. Toch is hij oprecht in zijn intentie en zegt hij: “Als ik geld zou hebben, dan zou ik zoals die of die doen”. Voorwaar, hij wordt (beloond) middels zijn intentie en hij zal dezelfde beloning krijgen als de eerste.
Een dienaar die van Allah rijkdom gekregen heeft, maar geen kennis. Hij geeft zijn geld losbandig uit zonder kennis, zonder zijn Heer te vrezen en zonder daarmee zijn familiebanden te onderhouden en zonder het recht van Allah te kennen. Deze (persoon) bevindt zich in de meest bedorven gradaties.
Een dienaar die van Allah geen rijkdom en geen kennis heeft gekregen, maar die zegt: “Als ik geld zou hebben, zou ik hetzelfde doen als die of die”. Voorwaar, hij wordt (beloond) middels zijn intentie en hij zal dezelfde last ondergaan.”

Deze authentieke hadith is overgeleverd van de Profeet (vrede en zegeningen zij met hem) in Ahmad en Tirmidhi. De hadith is sahih.