Mubarak, sons to face new Egypt trial

Gamal (L) and Alaa Mubarak, sons of former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, stand inside a cage at a courtroom in Cairo, June 2, 2012.
Egypt’s ousted dictator Hosni Mubarak and his two sons will face a new trial for using state funds to acquire personal property, judicial sources said Sunday.
Mubarak and his two sons, Alaa and Gamal, are accused of using 125 million Egyptian pounds (13.5 million euros, $18 million) — which had been allocated for presidential palaces by the ministry of housing — for personal purchases.

Four others are accused in the same case, the sources said, adding that the date for the trial has yet to be set.

Mubarak is already facing a retrial on charges of complicity in the deaths of protesters during the 2011 uprising that ended his more than three decades of rule.

His sons are also on trial in a separate corruption case.

(Source / 24.11.2013)

Kerry commits U.S. to Libya stabilisation efforts

U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry (R) speaks to the media with British Foreign Secretary William Hague (L) and Libyan Prime Minister Ali Zeidan, in London, Nov. 24, 2013.
U.S Secretary of State John Kerry on Sunday vowed to work with the international community to try and restore order in Libya following a recent escalation in violence.

Kerry was speaking in London following talks with British counterpart William Hague and Libyan Prime Minister Ali Zeidan.

“We talked to the prime minister today about the things we can do together – the United Kingdom and the United States and its other friends – in order to help Libya to achieve the stability that it needs,” he told a press conference.

“Libya has gone through great turmoil, particularly after the course of the last weeks,” Kerry added.

“And the Prime Minister informed us of a transformation that he believes is beginning to take place and could take place because the people of Libya have spoken out and pushed back against the militias,” he said.

“So this is a moment of opportunity where there’s a great deal of economic challenge, there’s a great deal of security challenge,” he added.

Rebel fiefdoms

Rebels helped topple and kill veteran dictator Muammar Qaddafi in 2011, but have since banded into militias carving their own fiefdoms, each with its own ideology and regional allegiance.

Libya’s government announced plans last Tuesday to remove militias from the capital and eventually integrate them into the security forces, after a weekend of deadly clashes between militiamen and residents.

Hundreds of residents then on Friday called on Libyan militias still in Tripoli to follow other groups and withdraw.

Zeidan stressed that country had lately “done a lot to get rid of the militias” and praised the work of allies who had committed to help Libya.

As a result, he predicted that Libya would become “an active contributor on the world arena.”

Foreign Secretary Hague pledged Britain’s support to help Libya establish security and democracy and, along with Kerry, welcomed the withdrawal of armed militias from Tripoli.

(Source / 24.11.2013)

Inside Zaatari, the Jordanian refugee camp that makes Syria’s civil war look like the better option


Rafat Hariri has cheated death many times. He has been shot at, witnessed explosions and lost several friends. Having felt the wrath of Bashar al-Assad’s forces, the 20-year old Syrian escaped to the relative safety of Zaatari refugee camp in northern Jordan.

But he considers this new life unbearable and plans to return home. “A lot of people go back to Syria. Being here is bad, there is not much food and you cannot really do a lot of things,” he says.

In Syria, Mr Hariri and his friend, Sala Masari, also 20, were militants, fighting against the regime with a group called In the Way of God. They have been living at Zaatari for almost a year.

The young men are restless, however, and miss the status that comes with being an anti-regime fighter. In a bid to gain a sense of purpose they have set up a men’s clothes shop on the side of a dusty Zaatari street. Their stock of jeans, trainers and brightly coloured T-shirts go unsold since most people at the camp are struggling even to be able to afford to eat.

“When we open the doors people come in, but there is not a lot of business,” he says.

Now they are being urged by friends that have already re-entered Syria to join them and take up arms again.

“Assad is an animal,” Mr Masari says. “I will return to Syria in the next few months.”

They are not alone. Zaatari, the sprawling tent city in the desert, now houses about 150,000 Syrian refugees, in often dehumanising conditions. Resources are stretched. Food is minimal. Accessing healthcare is a challenge. And some refugees report that the drinking water supplied at the camp is contaminated, spreading disease.

Other factors prompting Syrians to consider leaving the camp include rising lawlessness. With no judicial system in place theft and violence is common and goes unpunished.

“There needs to be security here. It’s a very big problem,” Abdul Homsi says. In Syria he was a policeman, yet at the camp he runs a modest grocery stall that sells cereal, jam and bottled water. A few days earlier the stall had been burgled. “There is no life here. I want to go home,” he adds. “We want to go back because we want to be able to work and do normal things people do.”

Women feel especially vulnerable. “I have not seen a UN person in three months. Nobody knows who runs the camp,” Manal Masalmeh, a grandmother in her 40s, says. She spends her days with her fellow refugees in Zaatari, passing the time by doing embroidery. But along with her family – two sons, their wives and four grandchildren – she rents an apartment outside of Zaatari, in nearby al-Mafraq, for greater safety.

Due to the huge influx of Syrians the cost of rent in the region has soared. The family’s one bedroom apartment has quadrupled in price over the past year, from 50 Jordanian dinars per month (about £44) to 200. One of her sons was lucky enough to get a job as a manual worker, although his income barely covers the rent. Food and medicines in the area are also in short supply and therefore increasing in cost.

This existence has become unsustainably expensive and the family is looking into what to do next, which could mean going home.

Ms Masalmeh is defiant. “The people of Syria are not afraid,” she says. “Within a year we will go back.”

(Source / 24.11.2013)

Palestine & UNESCO: The national duty to protect cultural heritage

The Palestinian flag is raised alongside the UNESCO flag for the first time, at the Tomb of the Patriarchs in Hebron in Dec. 2011.
The second installment of a two-part policy brief from Al-Shabaka, the Palestinian Policy Network. The first part can be found here.

Al-Shabaka is an independent non-profit organization whose mission is to educate and foster public debate on Palestinian human rights and self-determination within the framework of international law.


Palestine gained membership of UNESCO in 2011 but its representatives have not yet made best use of this new status due in part to pressure by Israel and the United States. Al-Shabaka Policy Member Nidal Sliman and Guest Author Valentina Azarov review the value of UNESCO in the quest to fulfill Palestinian rights and to apply the relevant international law instruments to the case of Palestine.

They make a compelling argument that Palestine can gain significant practical advantages from its UNESCO membership, including reasserting sovereignty over its land and sea and obliging third states to hold Israel accountable for its obligations.

Palestine’s Duty to Protect Cultural Heritage 

Statehood status and accession to international organizations and treaties can afford protection for rights, but they also entail obligations on the part of the state party. Thus, Palestine is required to modify its national legal system and relevant institutions in accordance with its obligations under the UNESCO Constitution andthe eight conventions it has ratified.

The legislation currently in force in the OPT – composed of Ottoman, British mandatory, Jordanian (West Bank), Egyptian (Gaza Strip), Israeli, and Palestinian Authority (PA) laws (Legislative Council laws, Presidential Decrees, Council of Ministers regulations, and ministerial directives) – does not adequately protect Palestinian cultural heritage. It is fragmented, subject to Israel’s whims and does not meet international standards. For example, the 1929 version of the Antiquities Ordinance No. 51 that is still in force in the Gaza Strip, and the 1966 version applicable in the West Bank, only deal with tangible cultural heritage.

The Palestinian Basic Law obliges the President to “be faithful” to the homeland’s “national heritage.” Yet the role and mandates of the bodies officially responsible – the PA Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities and the Ministry of Culture, as well as the Palestine Liberation Organization National Commission for Education, Culture and Science – are not well defined, further impeding national capacity to protect national heritage.

And, of course, Israel restricts their area of operations: Israeli military orders enforceable in Area C of the West Bank vest all regulatory powers regarding cultural property in a military officer. In addition, Israel has extended the application of its domestic law to occupied East Jerusalem and declared all undiscovered artifacts in the city as its own in flagrant violation of international law. Nevertheless, as argued at the end of this section, it is important that the Palestinian authorities pass the necessary legislation in line with international standards: This will make it harder for Israel to continue to illegally remove Palestinian heritage from the OPT, and will enable the Palestinian authorities to pursue legal actions in third countries to recover such cultural properties.

With technical assistance from UNESCO, the PA Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities renewed the initiative to draft modern legislation in 2011. In 2012, two draft laws for the protection of tangible and intangible cultural heritage were prepared, in consultation with public and private stakeholders, which took account of Palestine’s international obligations under UNESCO’s Constitution and treaties, as well as international best practices, including model laws prepared by the World Intellectual Property Organization and the Arab League.

The main provisions of the 2012 draft law on tangible cultural heritage include the principle of public ownership of cultural heritage, a ban on the sale or transfer of such properties, and a mechanism enabling the local authorities to reclaim cultural properties illegally removed from occupied territory. The draft law itself obliges the state to seek ratification of international conventions aimed at protecting cultural heritage. However, the capacity and resources for the management and preservation of sites in Palestine remain limited, resulting in a backlog in documentation and preservation. The draft law seeks to address this state of affairs by establishing an independent Authority to preserve, protect and develop cultural heritage in Palestine.

The 2012 draft law concerning intangible cultural heritage, which includes Palestinian folk dance, embroidery, and hikaye (a narrative expression practiced by women), among others, addresses the measures for safeguarding such heritage and defines the criminal offenses that can be perpetrated against it.

It is unfortunate that, given the Palestinian Legislative Council’s inactivity since 2007, due to Israeli restrictions as well as internal Palestinian politics, the laws’ formal enactment is unlikely to take place in the foreseeable future. Nor have the laws been submitted to the PA Council of Ministers for review and endorsement before submission to the President to issue a decree as he has done in other cases.
Palestine’s obligations under international treaty law, in addition to the urgent practical need to enhance protection of Palestinian cultural heritage in the face of threats, should be incentives to ensure conformity of Palestine’s own legislation and practice to international standards. The draft laws could, if enacted, significantly enhance Palestine’s national legal framework, deter domestic violations and further Palestine’s standing in third countries and international institutions to contest, prevent, and take measures against unlawful Israeli conduct.

For example, in a recent judgment by Israel’s High Court, a defendant in a case involving illegal removal of cultural property from the OPT, claimed that since the law currently in force in the OPT does not declare all undiscovered cultural property to be that of the state (which is the case under Israeli law), it was the responsibility of the state prosecutor to prove that the cultural properties had been stolen. The Court rejected this argument; at the same time, it also ignored international law banning the removal of cultural property from the OPT. The issue only proves the urgency of enacting a strong unequivocal Palestinian law that declares all cultural property found in Palestine to be that of the state.

Conclusions and Recommendations 

UNESCO conventions and instruments offer a framework of control and protection for Palestine’s cultural heritage, as well as access to international cooperation for the protection of cultural heritage, based on codified law. By strictly limiting the role of an occupying power in relation to excavations and use of cultural property in the occupied territory, the 1954 Hague Convention, amongst other instruments, protects the rights of the legitimate sovereign and its people over their cultural property and heritage during armed conflict.

With its newly-acquired UNESCO membership and its ability to accede to further treaties, Palestine today is better-equipped than ever before to seek the restitution of illicitly-removed or traded cultural properties, to assert control over its underwater heritage in the exclusive economic zone and territorial waters off Gaza, and to include national sites on UNESCO’s World Heritage List, removing them from the political negotiations agenda by securing its national sovereignty over them. Palestine is also better positioned to explore the potential of litigation and other legal measures in foreign domestic jurisdictions to facilitate the return of artifacts and bring Israeli officials involved in unlawful excavations to justice.

Palestine can claim its rights by engaging with UNESCO’s institutions as well as seeking to compel third states and international actors to pressure Israel to comply with its UNESCO obligations. In light of Israel’s record of unlawful acts in this domain (and others), any third state relations with Israel should be structured in a manner that guarantees Israel’s good-faith compliance with international law, to ensure the ability of the third state or international actor, such as the European Union, to respect its own international and domestic legal obligations.

In turn, Palestine should demonstrate its own good faith commitment to UNESCO’s protection framework by adopting the necessary legal and administrative measures in its national law, and seeking their enforcement, to the extent possible, as long as Israel continues to maintain principal control over Palestinian territory. The very inability of the local Palestinian institutions to enforce their national laws and policies demonstrates Israel’s violations of its international legal obligations, to say nothing of its theft, damage and destruction of Palestinian heritage.

It is in Palestine’s best interest to comply with the international legal obligations that come with membership, as well as consider its options for promoting them through UNESCO’s international fora and in the domestic systems of third states, whereby a notification procedure should be agreed in the context of UNESCO to facilitate return of cultural property to their geographic origins and context.

Adequate legal protection of cultural heritage on the national level will support Palestine’s efforts to reclaim possession of stolen cultural properties and further its efforts to regain control over its territory. Once Palestinian draft laws are agreed and finalized in consultation with all stakeholders, including the private sector and civil society, they should be taken through the existing PA legislative process. In parallel, a Palestinian inventory of documentation on transferred artifacts and site excavations should be devised.

Local and international civil society organizations should be more vocal in calling upon the Palestinian Government to take appropriate measures to protect cultural heritage in Palestine by adopting the draft laws, and strengthening national institutions entrusted with safeguarding cultural heritage in Palestine. Civil society organizations can also play an important role in raising awareness domestically and internationally on the need to separate the issue of protecting cultural heritage from the politics of the “peace process.”

Ultimately, the effective protection of Palestine’s cultural and natural heritage can only be attained by reconnecting the Palestinian people with that heritage. The proper utilization of the UNESCO framework, both nationally and internationally, is a critical step towards Palestine’s ability to gain control over its cultural heritage by ensuring that it is managed and governed by its sovereign law, in accordance with international standards.

(Source / 24.11.2013)

FSA and Islamic Front Advance on Regime Forces in Eastern Ghouta

The Free Syrian Army and the Islamic Front captured the towns of Buharriya, Qasimia, Abbada and Deir Salman in Eastern Ghouta after fierce clashes with Assad Forces with reports of regime losses. Clashes are still going on in the town of Otaiba, a main supply line that the anti-Assad battalions depend on for the delivery of humanitarian aid and medicines to the besieged areas. In addition, informed sources said that the Free Syrian Army and the Islamic Front are tightening the noose on the town after inflicting heavy losses on the regime forces. Anti-Assad battalions announced they fully liberated the town of Deir Attiya in Al Kalamoon area and the Samiya village near Damascus International Airport. The Syrian Coalition said that gains being made by the anti-Assad forces debunk the regime’s false allegations and lies about its victories and described those allegations as merely “delusional propaganda.” This great progress made by anti-Assad battalions came after the announcement of a revolutionary united bloc called “The Islamic Front” that includes the largest anti-Assad militant factions inside Syria. According to leaders of those factions, the merger was meant to be a show of tribute to the blood of Abdulkader Saleh, the fallen hero who was the core of this revolutionary bloc. The ‘Islamic Front’ is the first bloc that includes anti-Assad Kurdish factions which, according to analysts, indicates the unity of purpose among all spectrums of the Syrian people and the inability of the regime to sow disunity among the fighters who seek to topple the Assad regime.
(Source: Syrian Coalition / 24.11.2013)
General Commission for Education Oversees the Development of Curricula
The Supreme Commission for Education of the Syrian National Coalition announced that the Committee assigned with re-examining the curriculum had concluded its work. The Committee stated that it will raise the suggestions of the Supreme Commission for Education in the coming days to decide on procedures and changes for all subjects in line with modern methods of teaching. Minister of Education candidate Abdul Rahman Al –Hajj said that the Ministry of Education in the interim government will “try make use of all the efforts and resources of the Supreme Commission for Education and Higher Education to build the structures and staff of the Ministry of Education as well as the projects they intend to work on during the first six months.” Hajj added that “great efforts have been made recently such as conducting examinations for high school students, printing textbooks and supervising Syrian schools in the refugee camps as well as supporting schools in the liberated areas through local councils.” However, the National Commission for Education and Higher Education said in a statement that they have not granted any licenses to any outside organizations to conduct exams for students who have dropped out of school. The Commission also denied granting licenses for opening new universities inside or outside Syria. Accordingly, the Supreme National Commission for Education requires all Syrian students not to adopt any educational institution or party to speak for the Syrian National Coalition.
(Source: Syrian Coalition)

French Medical Delegation to Conduct Neurosurgery on Syrian Refugees in Jordan
Jawad Abu Hatab, the head of the Health Commission of the Syrian National Coalition said that a French medical delegation is currently visiting Jordan for conducting a number of neurological operations for Syrians. Abu Hatab also said that the Health Commission will send surgical anesthetic drugs to southern Syria and specifically to Dara’a Province in cooperation with the Assistance Coordinating Unit. The Commission also intends to establish a headquarters as a prelude to creating a center for the manufacture of artificial limbs. The Commission is also preparing a comprehensive report on polio cases detected in addition to taking samples from children suspected of having the disease in northeastern Syria and sending them to laboratories for analysis. Furthermore, the Commission is going to create medical clinics in Gaziantep and train cadres of specialists in first aid and nursing in northern and southern Syria.

(Source: Syrian Coalition / 24.11.2013)

Palestine can now join International Criminal Court

Palestine can now join International Criminal Court


Palestine can now join International Criminal Court

A spokesman for the ICC said that Palestine’s membership has become possible after it became an observing member of the UN.

Palestine can now apply to join the International Criminal Court, the court spokesman said Saturday.

“Palestine’s membership has become possible after it became an observing member of the United Nations,” Fadi Abdullah told a lecture at the National Library in the Moroccan capital Rabat.

Palestine became the 194 member of the UN in November 2012 after 138 member-states voted in favor of its application, with the abstention of forty one countries and the opposition of nine.

Abdullah, a Lebanese rights advocate, noted that only four Arab countries are signatories of the Rome Statue.

The Hague-based ICC is a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes.

It was created by the Rome Statute which came into effect on 1 July 2002.

(Source / 24.11.2013)

Uitspraken om over na te denken deel 1

By Marianna Laarif

  •  “Iemands volmaaktheid uit zich in het verrichten van goede daden en het bezitten van juiste kennis.”
  • “De standvastigheid van een persoon in dit wereldse bepaalt de standvastigheid van zijn voeten over de Siraat in het Hiernamaals.”
  • “Wees niet verontrust vanwege het feit dat jij je alleen bevindt op het pad van de waarheid.”
  • “Hoe vollediger de aanbidding van een persoon is, hoe meer aandacht hij krijgt van Allah.”
  • “Toevlucht zoeken bij Allah hangt van twee fundamenten af: Vertrouwen in Allah en op Hem bouwen.”
  • “De dienaar zal de woorden: “U aanbidden wij” niet werkelijk verwezenlijken, totdat hij beschikt over twee fundamenten: al-Ikhlaas (zuivere toewijding) en al-Moetaabaah (navolging).”
  • “Niemand kent het geheim en doel van de aanbidding, behalve hij die op de hoogte is van de Namen, Eigenschappen en Eenheid van Allah. En degene die beweert een positie te hebben bereikt waarbij de aanbiddingen voor hem komen te vervallen, is een Zindieq (dwaalgeest) en ongelovig.”
  • “Iedere adem die uitgeblazen wordt, maar niet nader tot Allah brengt, zal uiteindelijk een vernauwing zijn voor de dienaar.”
  • “Wanneer het hart zich met iets vult, zal het geen plaats meer overhouden voor wat anders.”
  • “Degene die deze weg bewandelt, zal blootgesteld worden aan beproevingen en obstakels. Slechts met het inzicht van kennis zal men zich hiervan kunnen redden.”

4 injured, 2 detained in anti-Prawer protests in the Negev

BEERSHEBA (Ma’an) — Four were wounded and two detained in clashes that broke out on Sunday morning between Israeli police and protesters opposed to the visit of a Knesset committee in the Negev region.

The clashes broke out as a result of protests coordinated by the High Steering Committee of the Arabs of the Negev as part of a strike against the committee’s visit to Palestinian villages in southern Israel.

Palestinian member of the Israeli Knesset Talab Abu Arar accused police of trying to intimidate protesters who are demanding their rights and he condemned the “assaulting, injuring, and arresting” of protestors by Israeli forces.

The protests were launched against the visit of the Interior Committee, one of the central Israeli government bodies working to accelerate the implementation of the Prawer Plan, the High Steering Committee said.

The Prawer Plan, if implemented, would displace tens of thousands of Palestinian Bedouins from their homes across the Negev, the southern region of Israel. The Plan has been the target of a widespread mobilization across Palestinian society and around the world.

Abu Arar said that most of the participants in the committee’s tour are government employees that support the implementation of the Prawer Plan.

He said that government officials did not listen to any Arabs, not even Arab leaders of the local government in formulating the plan, adding that “this shows that the Israeli government deals with Arabs as enemies.”

The Islamic Movement in the Negev released a statement denouncing the actions of Israeli police in dispersing protesters against the committee’s visit.

The statement said that Israeli forces arrested a field researcher for al-Mezan Center for Human Rights as well as Yunis Moussa Abu Abed from Rahat.

The statement encouraged Negev residents to remain “rooted” in the land and categorically rejected the Prawer Plan.

The Israeli government approved the Prawer-Begin Plan in 2011, in what it says was an attempt to address the problem of unrecognized Bedouin villages in the Negev desert of southern Israel.

According to the Association for Civil Rights in Israel, the plan will forcibly evict nearly 40,000 Bedouins and destroy their communal and social fabric, condemning them to a future of poverty and unemployment.

Israel refuses to recognize 35 Bedouin villages in the Negev, which collectively house nearly 90,000 people.

The Israeli state denies them access to basic services and infrastructure, such as electricity and running water, and refuses to place them under municipal jurisdiction.

Palestinians will gather in several cities within historic Palestine and around the world on Nov. 30 to protest against the Prawer Plan, several youth organizations announced in early November.

Although the majority of Palestinians were expelled from their homes inside Israel during the 1948 conflict that led to the creation of the State of Israel, some Palestinians managed to remain in their villages and their descendants today make up around 20% of Israel’s population.

(Source / 24.11.2013)

Israeli court extends detention of 7 teenagers from Jerusalem

JERUSALEM (Ma’an) — An Israeli court on Sunday extended the detention period of seven teenagers from Issawiya village of East Jerusalem.

Lawyer from Palestinian prisoner support group Addameer Mohammad Mahmoud said that the seven teens aged between 14-16 were charged with “throwing firebombs” at an Israeli military base near the village and trying to set it on fire.

Six of the teenagers were identified as Nourredin Obeid, Diya Obeid, Mohammad Sameer Obeid, Adham Sabta, Odai Obeid, and Mohammad Amin.

Mahmoud added that they were arrested previously from their homes at dawn, and were taken to police stations and interrogated with without any relatives present.

Mahmoud added that Raed Marrar, 16, was arrested on dawn on Sunday from his home in the village, and his detention was also extended until next Tuesday.

Israeli police had released a statement earlier on Sunday saying that the detention of the teenagers was extended on charges of “forming a cell,” and “throwing firebombs at the Hebrew University, the military base, and other Israeli sites and cars.”

The teenagers are affiliated with the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine, and admitted to the charges against them during interrogation.

Issawiya is located inside East Jerusalem, a part of the internationally recognized Palestinian territories.

It has been under Israeli occupation since 1967, and Israel unilaterally annexed East Jerusalem in 1980. Approximately 200,000 Israeli settlers reside in the area in contravention of international law.

(Source / 24.11.2013)

Syrian children tortured, targeted by snipers, report says

Among the disturbing findings in the report by the Oxford Research Group is that many of the Syrian who have been killed in the conflict were targeted by snipers.Among the disturbing findings in the report by the Oxford Research Group is that many of the Syrian who have been killed in the conflict were targeted by snipers.

A new report details a number of disturbing ways that thousands of Syrian children have died in their country’s ongoing war — including targeted sniper fire and summary executions.

The report, released Sunday by the London-based Oxford Research Group, says 11,420 children aged 17 and under were killed between the start of the conflict in March 2011 and August 2013.

Summary executions and torture have been used against children as young as one, according to the report, entitled Stolen Futures: The Hidden Toll of Child Casualties in Syria.

The report’s findings include:

  • 71 per cent of children whose cause of death was recorded were killed by explosive weapons.
  • 26.5 per cent of children died from bullets, including those summarily executed and targeted by snipers.
  • 764 children were summarily executed.
  • 389 were killed by sniper fire.
  • more than 100 children were tortured.
  • children in older age groups were targeted more often than younger children, and overall boys outnumbered girls killed by about 2 to 1.
  • the highest child casualty figures were in the governorate of Aleppo, but relative to its size, the worst-affected governorate was Daraa.

Overall, 113,735 civilians and combatants were killed in the 30-month period studied by the independent think-tank.

“What is most disturbing about the findings of this report is not only the sheer numbers of children killed in this conflict, but the way they are being killed,” the report’s co-author Hana Salama said.

The Oxford Research Group said the majority of children were killed during bombings in their neighbourhoods.

The UK-based group is calling for fighters from all sides to undergo training in saving civilians’ lives.

(Source / 24.11.2013)