For Palestinians, the Nakba is not history

The Nakba has a dual meaning today. On one hand, it is about the hundreds of villages that were razed in 1948 and the hundreds of thousands of refugees who lost their homes. On the other hand, Palestinians continue to suffer the Nakba daily – the separation of families, continuous confiscations of land and settlements choking every Palestinian village and town.

Palestinians today mark 64 years since the Nakba (catastrophe). They are not commemorating a historical event that has long passed, or a sad moment in their past. Many of the Palestinian people are living the reality of the Nakba today. The pain of the open wound has not healed.

Sixty-four years after the Nakba, Palestinians still have no state and no equality. Refugee camps still exist all over the world and a majority of Palestinians live in the diaspora. Against their will, the Nakba divided the Palestinian people between Palestine and diaspora, between Gaza and the West Bank, between those who hold a refugee identification card and who don’t.

The Nakba has a dual meaning today. On one hand, it is about the hundreds of villages that were razed in 1948 and the hundreds of thousands of refugees who lost their homes. I remember taking a group to Qubeibeh, a Palestinian village on the outskirts of Hebron. Qubeibeh was destroyed in 1948. On the trip, I asked two Palestinians who lived there before the war to join us. They walked around the destroyed village telling the stories of each house, each family, the gossip of the town, funny and sad anecdotes. The tears streaming down their faces were tears of longing and passion, about loss and love.

However, this is only one aspect of the Nakba. Palestinians today feel that the Nakba didn’t end in ’48. They suffer the Nakba daily – the separation of families, continuous confiscations of land and the settlements choking every Palestinian village and town.

The Nakba is the present as much as it is the past. To my parents who built their house in Bethany, which is five kilometers outside Jerusalem, the Nakba is as real today as it was 64 years ago. But my parents aren’t allowed to live in their house if they want to keep their Jerusalem ID. They must rent an apartment in Jerusalem. Yet the Ma’aleh Adumim settlement is walking distance from my parent’s home in Bethany. It is perfectly “legal” for Israeli Jews to live there, but not for my parents. Every time my father travels through checkpoints to water the garden he planted and to take care of the empty house – while not being allowed to spend a night there –  he relives the Nakba again. When my aunt, who was born in Jerusalem but lives in Hebron, cannot come and visit us in Jerusalem because she is a “West Banker,” we live the Nakba again.

This year, Nakba commemoration is no different than in previous years. Despite many Israeli historians whose research shows that the Nakba is not a figment of the Palestinian imagination, but a real tragedy, many Israelis prefer to ignore it or not believe it. They prefer to cover their eyes and close their ears when it comes to the Palestinian story, the Palestinian pain and the Palestinian narrative.

I understand that it is hard to learn about the narrative of ”your enemy” and the suffering of that enemy, especially if it is due to your country’s practices. I remember having to walk this uncomfortable path and learn about the Israeli and Jewish narrative. At first everything in me rejected the idea and refused to sympathize. However, if peace is ever to be realized between the Palestinians and the Israelis, this must happen. Dr. Sami Adwan, Dr. Dan Bar-on and Dr. Eyal Naveh have undertaken the breakthrough work of presenting the two narratives in a joint book published recently, titled “Side by side.” The importance of recognizing the story of the other is crucial to any real peace. This is true for both Israelis and Palestinians.

However, the reality paints a different picture. The Israeli government not only ignores Palestinian history, but is also trying to force Palestinians to forget their own narrative, by forbidding commemoration of the Nakba. Are they so ignorant that they believe a law can strip a person of his identity, memories and passions?  Jews who came to Palestine  boasted about their longing for the “holy land” for thousands of years. How can such people ignore the longing and love of the land of many Palestinians who lived on that land just 64 years ago, many of whom cannot even visit anymore?

The justification I hear about why Israel ignores the Nakba is an interesting one. They claim that Nakba commemoration is about hating Jews. I have heard it over and over again. So, I quote the Palestinian poet Mahmound Darwish, who wrote about the Nakba extensively. When accused of hating Jews he said:

The accusation is that I hate Jews.
It’s not comfortable that they show me as a devil
and an enemy of Israel.
I am not a lover of Israel, of course.
I have no reason to be.But I don’t hate Jews

I will continue to humanize even the enemy
The first teacher who taught me Hebrew was a Jew.
The first love affair in my life was with a Jewish girl.
The first judge who sent me to prison was a Jewish woman.
So from the beginning, I didn’t see Jews as devils or angels,
but as human beings.

While Nakba day is about mourning the destruction of historical Palestine and facing a continued unjust reality, it is also about the future. The Palestinians on this day look ahead and try to figure out a way for Nakba Day to become about the past and not the present. We cannot change the past, but we can make tomorrow different. Nakba Day is also about finding a way to bring peace to a people that lived in catastrophe and long for peace, freedom and security.

(Source / 14.05.2013)

Attacks against Lebanese Alawites deepen fears

Lebanese Sunni gunmen opposed to the Syrian regime head to join comrades in Bab al-Tabbaneh during clashes with Alawite pro-Syrian regime supporters.

Lebanese members of the Syrian leader’s Alawite sect fear their tiny community will be a casualty of the civil war raging in the neighboring country.

Already, Sunni Muslim extremists have stoned a school bus, vandalized stores and beaten or stabbed a number of men in a wave of attacks against Lebanese Alawites, stoking fears of even more violence should Syrian President Bashar Assad be removed from power.

In one particularly humiliating case, angry Sunnis tied a rope around an Alawite man’s neck and dragged him around the streets of Tripoli.

“The Alawites are being subjected to an organized campaign that aims to eliminate them on all levels,” said Ali Feddah, a prominent member of Lebanon’s Arab Democratic Party, which is mainly Alawite.

Feddah spoke to The Associated Press in his office in Tripoli’s predominantly Alawite neighborhood of Jabal Mohsen. Sitting next to a picture of Assad, he said the Alawites face an “existential threat,” mainly because of extremist Sunni incitement against them.

His words echo the sentiments of many Alawites, who have long enjoyed privileges in Syria under Assad family rule and now fear for their future. The tiny community in Lebanon, which has long been a Syrian client state, has also benefited from Assad’s rule, particularly during Syria’s three-decade hold on its smaller neighbor that ended in 2005.

The Alawite sect, an offshoot of Shiite Islam, represents little more than 10 percent of the population in Syria and about 2 percent in Lebanon. Before their ascent in the mid-20th century, the Alawites were impoverished and marginalized, largely confined to the mountains of the province of Latakia on the Mediterranean coast.

Under the French mandate, the Alawites were granted an autonomous territory stretching in a band along the coast from the Lebanese border to the Turkish border. It lasted a few years until 1937, when their state was incorporated into modern-day Syria.

After the 1963 coup that brought the Baath Party to power in Damascus, Alawites began consolidating their presence in the Syrian government and armed forces.

The uprising against Assad’s rule that began in March 2011 quickly became an outlet for long-suppressed grievances, mostly by poor Sunnis from marginalized areas. It has since escalated into an outright civil war.

Many of the rebels trying to overthrow Assad today say they want to replace his government with an Islamic state.

The war, now in its third year, has turned increasingly sectarian with countless cases of tit-for-tat slayings between Sunnis and Alawites. Sunni rebels are often seen in videos posted online referring to Alawites as dogs and heretics.

Abu Bilal al-Homsi, an activist in the central Syrian city of Homs who has links with several rebel groups, said the Assad regime has carried out massacres against Sunnis. He points to waves of sectarian killings this month, allegedly carried out by pro-government Alawite gunmen in the coastal towns of Banias and Bayda. More than 100 civilians were killed in the attacks.

“We will completely wipe out the Alawite sect,” said al-Homsi, who does not use his real name because of fear of government reprisals. “There will be no Alawites in Syria. The young and the old will be punished.”

Bassam al-Dada, an official in the rebels’ Free Syrian Army, disagrees with al-Homsi. “The Alawites have nothing to do with Bashar’s crimes,” he said.

The U.N. estimates that more than 70,000 people have been killed in the war. Human Rights activists say most of them are Sunnis, but Alawites have also paid a heavy price. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said Tuesday the group has documented the names of more than 35,000 Alawites who have died, most of them soldiers and pro-Assad militiamen.

“Their losses statistically are very high. There is a lot of resentment in Alawite regions,” said Hilal Khashan, political science professor at the American University in Beirut.

The tensions in Syria are playing out in Lebanon, which is sharply split along sectarian lines and has recently seen repeated bouts of street fighting related to the war across the border.

Northern Lebanon, in particular, is a potential powder keg. It has a strong Sunni population but also has pockets of Alawites.

The Alawites live mainly in Jabal Mohsen, a hilly district where posters of Assad and his father and predecessor, the late Hafez Assad, decorate the streets.

For years, residents of Jabal Mohsen have traded short bouts of automatic weapons fire and volleys of rocket-propelled grenades with residents of the mainly Sunni Bab Tabbaneh neighborhood.

The two districts in Tripoli are separated by a roadway named Syria Street.

The clashes have become more frequent since Syria’s uprising began – and so have the targeted attacks.

Ali, an unemployed 25-year-old Alawite from Jabal Mohsen, says he has not been to Sunni neighborhoods of Tripoli for more than a year after he was beaten up in the central Tal neighborhood.

Ali, who declined to give his full name for fear of reprisals, described how he was intercepted by a man who ran toward him, grabbed him by the neck and tried to choke him as he shouted: “Are you from the Jabal?”

He said he denied he was an Alawite and was eventually saved by a Sunni man who knew him.

Last month, a bus carrying school children was attacked on the edge of Jabal Mohsen by a group of extremists who pelted it with rocks for several minutes before troops intervened.

“Since then, all school buses from Jabal Mohsen are accompanied by troops,” Feddah said.

Residents say several men have been stabbed and beaten up in the past few weeks. Several shops in Jabal Mohsen were set on fire, their fronts seen shuttered on a recent visit.

Earlier this month, bearded extremists grabbed a Syrian man in Tripoli, beat him up and stripped him to the waist before tying a rope around his neck and parading him through the streets. “I am an Alawite shabih,” they wrote on his bare chest, in reference to widely feared pro-Assad militiamen who fight alongside soldiers in Syria.

In Syria, thousands of Alawites have left their homes in war-shattered cities such as Homs, for the relative safety of the overwhelmingly Alawite provinces of Tartous and Latakia.

Syrian opponents of Assad say Alawite fighters are trying to carve out a breakaway enclave in the country’s mountainous Alawite heartland by driving out local Sunnis. They say recent killings in overwhelmingly Sunni villages close to Alawite communities are meant to lay the groundwork.

Earlier this month, regime forces from nearby Alawite areas were blamed for killing dozens of civilians in Banias and Bayda, two Sunni communities in western Syria. The violence bore a closer resemblance to two reported mass killings last year in Houla and Qubeir, Sunni villages surrounded by Alawite towns in central Syria.

Turkish Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoglu told Turkey’s Hurriyet newspaper that having failed to control the entire country, Assad was now executing his “plan B” – which involves opening up an Alawite corridor between central Syria and Lebanon and driving Sunnis away from the area.

“There is an effort to cleanse the region,” Davutoglu said in the interview, published last week. “This will cause turmoil in Lebanon too. It could cause a culture of revenge.”

(Source / 14.05.2013)

Israeli Extremists Burn Cars, Write Racist Graffiti Near Haifa

Tuesday May 4 2013; the Arabs48 News Website has reported that a number of extremist Israelis attacked the Um Al-Qataf village, in Wadi ‘Ara area, torched three Palestinian cars and wrote racist graffiti against the Arabs.

Image Arabs48
The burnt cars were parked in the yard of a local mosque in the village; local residents denounced the attack, and said that extremist fundamentalist Israelis are behind the latest assault.
The Arabs48 quoted Elan Sadeh, head of the Menashe Regional Council in the area, stating that the graffiti on the mosque indicate that the assailants are Jewish extremists.

Menashe denounced the attack and called on the police to investigate it, and apprehend the assailants.
An Israeli Police spokesperson stated that the settlers did not only write racist anti-Arab graffiti, but also drew the Star of David on some walls.

Um Al-Qataf is located in the Northern Triangle area, 45 kilometers south of Haifa.

(Source / 14.05.2013)

New Syrian opposition group formed

The new grouping, called the Union of Syrian Democrats, includes heavyweight activists such as Michel Kilo, a Christian writer and human rights activist.

A group of prominent Syrian activists who favor a civil, democratic state have formed a new opposition group, a member said Tuesday, in a further fragmentation of President Bashar al-Assad’s opponents.

The new grouping, called the Union of Syrian Democrats, includes heavyweight activists such as Michel Kilo, a Christian writer and human rights activist.

It appears to be an attempt to counterbalance the influence of the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood inside the National Coalition, the country’s main opposition bloc.

The 250 “members of the group, who come from different political streams, are united on the principal of democracy,” one of its members, Kamal Labwani, told AFP.

He declined to say directly that the group intended to challenge the Brotherhood’s influence, but said it would focus on creating a civil state.

“If the Muslim Brotherhood are opposed to the construction of a civil state, this group is directed against them. If they support this project, they are our allies,” he said.

“Our problem with the Muslim Brotherhood is that they say one thing and do another… they say they want a civil state, but in practice, they don’t.”

The Muslim Brotherhood is the best organized of the groups arrayed in opposition to President Assad’s regime.

But it has been criticized by activists for trying to dominate the opposition, boosted by the support of Qatar.

The group rejects the accusations, but they have only grown since the election of Ghassan Hitto, reportedly the Brotherhood choice, to the post of rebel prime minister.

The Syrian Brotherhood has also been accused of being controlled by Islamist extremeists.

“It is not true that extremists are in charge of liberated lands,” their leader Mohammad Riad Shakfa said at a press conference in Istanbul in April. “The land … belongs to a united front of the opposition.”

Speaking in Arabic, he added: “As far as I know, there is no extremism in Syria.”

The new opposition group, launched in Cairo, will hold a series of meetings in coming months to discuss their structure.

(Source / 14.05.2013)

Report: Hizbullah Fighters Advance to Syria-Jordan Border


Hizbullah fighters have been advancing swiftly into southern Syria and have reached the flashpoint southern town of Daraa near the border with Jordan, media reports said on Tuesday.

A source close to Hizbullah told the Kuwaiti al-Qabas newspaper that Hizbullah fighters played a significant role in helping the regime troops to take full power of the strategic town of Kherbet Ghazleh near the highway linking the capital Damascus with Jordan.

The source pointed out that Hizbullah fighters are not just groups backing the army regime but comprehensive fighting units that includes a full logistic team.

It said that Hizbullah’s military leadership is organizing the transfer of the units and providing them with weapons.

Last week, rebels withdrew from Khirbet Ghazaleh area after several days of fighting.

Government forces conducted house-to-house searches Monday as troops reopened the highway, restoring the supply line between Damascus and the contested provincial capital of Daraa.

Hizbullah Chief Sayyed Hassan Nasrallah acknowledged recently that members of his group are fighting inside Syria and suggested Iran and other states could intervene to support the Syrian regime against rebel fighters.

The party, a staunch backer of Bashar Assad’s regime, had announced several burials in past months, without elaborating on the circumstances of its members’ deaths.

The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights and the opposition say the army is backed by elite fighters from Hizbullah.

Hizbullah’s involvement in Syria’s spiraling conflict has been condemned by the Syrian opposition, which views it as a “declaration of war,” and by the March 14 alliance in Lebanon.

Since it began in March 2011, Syria’s conflict has fueled local tensions between the communities in Lebanon, with bouts of street fighting and kidnappings.

(Source / 14.05.2013)

Abu Dhabi gives $10 mn for development in Palestine

Abu Dhabi, May 15 (IANS/WAM) The Abu Dhabi Fund for Development (ADFD) will provide a grant of 39.5 million dirhams (around $10 million) to the Al Noor Association for culture and development in Palestine.

The grant will help build a community centre that will provide educational services and hold cultural programmes, which will raise awareness in social, educational, health and cultural fields among the Palestinian people.

The ADFD involvement in Palestine goes back to 1999. The Fund has since then offered and managed three grants for projects in housing, education and social development sectors.

With this current grant, the total assistance provided to Palestine by ADFD on behalf of the Abu Dhabi government now amounts to more than 469 million dirhams (around $128 million).

(Source / 14.05.2013)

Israeli troops attack Bethlehem rally


The rally kicked off from Duheisha camp.
BETHLEHEM (Ma’an) – Several Palestinians were injured by tear gas on Tuesday during a rally marking Nakba Day, which kicked off from Bethlehem’s Duheisha refugee camp.

A Ma’an reporter said about 300 Palestinians marched on the main road in Duheisha camp headed towards displaced Palestinian villages south of Bethlehem.

Israeli soldiers fired tear gas and rubber-coated steel bullets, popular committee official Monther Ameera said.

As the rally arrived in the old town of al-Khader and headed to the bypass Israeli road, Rt. 60, Israeli soldiers attacked the rally with tear-gas canisters and rubber-coated bullets.

Israeli troops also detained the coordinator of a popular committee against settlements Mazin al-Azzah.

An Israeli army spokeswoman said 150 Palestinians were hurling rocks, and soldiers responded with riot-dispersal means.

She denied reports of an arrest.

(Source /14.05.2013)

Geef Nooit Op!

By Marianna Laarif

Een man stond vroeg op voor het Fajr- gebed. Hij kleedde zich aan, deed zijn woedhoe en ging op weg naar de moskee. Onderweg viel hij en zijn kleding werd smerig. Hij stond op en ging helemaal terug naar huis. Eenmaal thuis kleedde hij zich om, deed opnieuw de wassing voor het gebed en ging weer richting moskee. Maar precies op dezelfde plek viel hij weer, en weer werden zijn kleren smerig. Hij ging weer terug naar huis, deed nog een keer schone kleren aan en verrichtte nog een keer de woedhoe, om daarna weer op weg te gaan naar de moskee, voor het ochtend- gebed.

Buiten kwam hij een man tegen met een lantaarntje/ lampje. Hij vroeg hem wie hij was. De man antwoordde: “Ik zag dat je 2 keer op weg ging naar de moskee en allebei de keren viel. Ik dacht, ik geef je een lichtje, zodat je niet nog eens zal vallen. Hij bedankte hem en samen liepen ze naar de moskee. De man met het lampje ging de moskee niet in. De ander vroeg hem mee te gaan, om samen te bidden, en nogmaals, maar telkens weigerde de man met de lamp. Uiteindelijk vroeg hij hem: “maar waarom niet, waarom kom je naar de moskee maar wil je het gebed niet verrichten?”

Tenslotte kreeg hij antwoord: “Ik ben Shaytaan.” De eerste man was geshockeerd! Hij kon geen woord meer uitbrengen. Shaytaan sprak verder: “Ik was het die je liet vallen, onderweg naar de moskee, ik wilde voorkomen dat je het gebed in de moskee ging doen. Ik dacht als je vies wordt ga je naar huis en blijf je thuis. Maar jij ging opnieuw je wassing verrichten en nog een keer op weg naar de moskee, hiervoor vergaf Allah je al je zonden, ik kon dit niet uitstaan. Dus liet ik je nog een keer vallen, op dezelfde plek. En jij gaf niet op, je had nog steeds dezelfde intentie, namelijk het verrichten van het ochtend- gebed in de moskee. Toen was ik bang om je voor de derde keer te laten vallen. Allah had nu niet alleen jou vergiffenis geschonken, maar ook alle mensen die tot jouw huishouding behoren, zoveel zonden waren vergeven. Ik dacht, als ik je nu weer laat vallen, voor de derde keer dus, en jij je weer gaat verschonen en wassen en voor de vierde keer op weg gaat naar de moskee, misschien vergeeft Allah dan wel alle inwoners van jouw dorp. En omdat te voorkomen besloot ik je te begeleiden naar de moskee, om er zeker van te zijn dat je de moskee schoon en wel zou bereiken.”

De les van dit verhaal:

Laat Shaytaan je niet tegen houden, heb je de intentie om een goede daad te verrichten, doe dan je uiterste best om het te verrichten, geef niet op, ook al moet je (steeds) opnieuw beginnen. Want je weet maar nooit hoeveel meer je beloning zal zijn door de moeite die je ervoor moet doen, hoe harder je ervoor werkt, hoe groter de beloning inshaAllah.

Breaking: We have purchased Gaza’s Ark

On the 65th commemoration of the Nakba, the struggle continues:

We have purchased Gaza’s Ark 

With your help, we will sail towards justice

GA&FFCWhen Palestinians and other people of conscience mark Nakba (Catastrophe) Day on May 15, they insist that the world acknowledge the history of Palestinian dispossession since 1948.  As world leaders have ignored Palestinian dispossession in general, they have also ignored the suffering of Palestinians in Gaza under the  Israeli blockade. Gaza’s Ark is a people-to-people campaign to force the injustices faced by Palestinians in Gaza back onto the world’s agenda.

We are excited to announce today that we have bought the boat that will become Gaza’s Ark! 

Your generous support has allowed us to reach this milestone. Your continued strong support will be crucial to our direct action campaign to challenge the blockade by sailing out from the port of Gaza withPalestinian exports for international markets.

We have made the down-payment to the boat’s previous owners but still have to pay the balance of the price, in addition to raising the funds required to rebuild and convert this fishing boat into a cargo vessel. With the help of donors like you we have raised over $90,000 to date (of an estimated campaign budget of about $US300,000).

Your continued support is the only way to ensure that the work will continue. Any amount is welcome, from $1 to $10,000 but if you can afford it, please be generous.

Since there are currently no cargo vessels in Gaza, we have purchased a fishing boat whose previous owners, like all fishers in Gaza, have difficulty making a living because of the violent restrictions imposed on Palestinian fishing boats by the Israeli government and we will convert it to a cargo vessel.

Much rebuilding is required and we are pleased that we will provide some work opportunities in Gaza where the illegal blockade has caused massive unemployment. Work on the boat will begin in a few days and it is critical that we have money in hand to ensure that the work will not be delayed, in the short term, due to lack of funds.  We also need to make the remaining boat payments to the seller on time.

We need you to be a part of this public challenge to the complicity of our governments with the illegal Israeli blockade of Gaza.  The Palestinian port of Gaza must be open for marine traffic like every other Mediterranean port. We will not rest until that happens – please help us work towards that goal. The pace of our campaign’s progress depends on the generosity of supporters like you, and on your willingness to help us recruit other individuals and organizations.

Please visit our website, which features regular updates about the campaign and many ways to donate. There you will also find information about our Palestinian Trade not Aid initiative, and links to the ongoing Freedom Flotilla Coalition campaigns for Palestinian freedom of movement, including freedom of sailing for the Palestinian fishing fleet.

Please support Gaza’s Ark in any way you can, spread the word of the campaign to your contacts, friends and family. This will help the project progress as quickly as possible.

Together we can help end the blockade of Gaza!

Please donate generously

(Source / 14.05.2013)

ICC prosecutor opens initial probe into Gaza flotilla

THE HAGUE (AFP) — The International Criminal Court has opened a preliminary probe into Israel’s deadly raid on a Gaza-bound flotilla in 2010, the prosecutor’s office said Tuesday.

“My office will be conducting a preliminary examination in order to establish whether the criteria for opening an investigation are met,” Fatou Bensouda said in a statement issued from the court based in The Hague.

Nine Turkish nationals were killed when Israeli commandos staged a botched pre-dawn raid on a six-ship flotilla seeking to bust Israel’s naval blockade of the Gaza Strip on May 31, 2010.

Bensouda said she had met Istanbul-based lawyers who are acting for the government of the Comoros, which referred the case to her office.

The ship on which the activists sailed was registered in the Indian Ocean island country, which has been a state party to the ICC since 2006.

“After careful analysis of all available information, I shall make a determination that will be made public in due course,” Bensouda said.

Israel imposed its blockade on Gaza in 2006 after militants there seized an Israeli soldier, who was eventually freed in 2011 in a trade for 1,000 Palestinian prisoners held by Israel.

The blockade was strengthened in 2007, when the Islamist Hamas movement took control of Gaza, then eased somewhat following an international outcry over the killing of the Turkish activists.

The maritime assault severely wrecked relations between the former regional allies, with Ankara demanding a formal apology and compensation for the families of the raid victims, as well as the lifting of the blockade.

Bensouda’s office receive numerous requests every year for probes into alleged crimes like genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes.

According to the Rome Statute, the court’s founding document, prosecutors may now gather initial information about the case.

If Bensouda believes she had enough evidence, she may then approach judges for the go-ahead to open a full investigation which could lead to a future trial.

Prosecutors are also busy with initial probes in several other countries like Afghanistan, Colombia and Nigeria, but so far no decision whether to ask judges for permission to open full investigations had been made following these investigations.

Established in 2002, the ICC is the world’s only permanent independent tribunal, set up to try the world’s worst crimes.

(Source / 14.05.2013)