To have rights or not to have

On Friday 23th of september President Abbas has brought the question for a sovereign state of Palestine to the UN. The question now is, will USA use her veto to protect his
bossy  friend  Israel?

Why doesn’t  the world accept that the Palestinian people has the right of a own free and sovereign state? Why does the world never listen to the people of Palestine? Where did it go wrong?

It went wrong when England did not do what she had to do:  give land to the Palestinians after the second world war. After that Israel could demolish occupied  land, buildings and houses,  murder Palestinians but most of all, declare her own sovereign state.

After listening the speech of President Abbas for the UN, i keep on fighting with my thoughts:  why didn’t  he do the same, declare the sovereign state of Palestine? President Abbas is nervous – i keep talking to myself – or careful .But what is important? Mr. Abbas is not important, the people of Palestine are important.

Keep working for the people of Palestine, Mr. President,  and fight for your people. Don’t make the mistake of dictators in Arab countries who has shot their own people.  Mr. President, the people of Palestine has the right to live in freedom, friendship and security and you are responsable for these points. Please do what you can, but don’t give away the life of your people. Don’t give away the country for words of Mr. Netanyahu; be careful by trusting  someone  very quick. Talks about freedom they did not do for years and when you ask for the state of Palestine, they want to talk
again …. Why is that?

Everybody has the right to live in freedom, friendship and  security and we have to work on that. The people in Europe has to fight for these rights on behave of the people of the whole  world, but that don’t mean introducing the western way of democracy. That is something of the people self, they know what to do.

The muslim community has to stand for their rights, also when they are in a non-muslim country, but the Palestinians have to stand twice as much for their rights in their own country. Strange or not?

© Khamakarpress

Egyptian urges world to recognize Palestinian state; blasts Israel

New York – Egyptian Foreign Minister Mohamed Kamel Amr on  Saturday urged countries to support the Palestinian statehood bid and  blasted Israel’s violence and its blockade of the Gaza Strip, which  he described as violations of international legitimacy.

Addressing the UN General Assembly, Amr pledged his country’s  commitment to the goal of achieving a ‘just and comprehensive peace  in the Middle East.

‘It has become totally absurd to carry on talking about a peace  process while Israeli continues, with total comfort and complete  disregard to the objections of the world, constructing settlements on  the Palestinian territories,’ said Amr, who was also representing the  Non-Aligned movement.

He called for ‘comprehensive and substantial reform’ in the United  Nations that would lead to a ‘more representative and more  transparent Security Council,’ and also focused on the January 25  revolution in Egypt.

( / 24.09.2011)

Michael Jansen: Right to recognition

Exclusive to The Gulf Today

In the current confrontation between the unborn Palestinian state and global heavyweight US/Israel, Palestine has won the first round. The US has demonstrated its reckless adherence to the line dictated by the right-wing Israeli regime while it has, once again, exposed its rejection of the two-state solution the international community has not only endorsed but also wants to see implemented.

It remains to be seen how the Palestinians handle rounds two and three in the ongoing campaign for the “internationalisation” of the Palestinian drive for statehood. Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas has adopted a two-stage strategy which may or may not work. On Friday, before delivering his address to the UN General Assembly, he handed a letter to Secretary General Ban Ki-moon calling for Security Council recognition of Palestine as a state with borders defined by the ceasefire line of June 4, 1967 and admission to the UN as a full member.

Regulations dictate that the Council has 25 days to consider this letter before voting and ten days to pass its recommendations to the General Assembly. Abbas has said he is prepared to wait, without specifying how long. If the US-dominated Council fails to act or the US blocks the Palestinian bid either with a veto or by subverting countries pledged to support the application, Abbas could go to the Assembly where the Palestinians have the support of at least 130 of the 193 members.

The Assembly can upgrade Palestine to the status of “non-member observer state.” This would be a major breakthrough for the Palestinians because the borders of this state would be defined as encompassing East Jerusalem, the West Bank and Gaza. The definition of the border between Palestine and Israel would settle one of the most contentious issues under negotiation over the past 20 years and not to Israel’s liking since it has planted half a million illegal colonists in East Jerusalem and the West Bank.

Having failed to prevent Abbas from going to the UN, the US now seeks to block Council action and to pre-empt Palestinian action in the Assembly by trying to restart negotiations between Palestinians and Israelis. The US is unlikely to succeed because Israeli Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu is not willing to meet Palestinian conditions for resumption: halt the expansion of its colonies in occupied Palestinian territory and negotiate on the basis of the 1967 line. Netanyahu is unlikely to change his mind at Washington’s behest because he has defeated and repeatedly humiliated the Obama administration whenever it has tried to break the impasse between the sides.

As a result, an Israel-compliant President Barack Obama blew it in his address to this year’s opening session of the General Assembly. A year ago he pledged that Palestine would take its place as a full member state by the 2011 session. Thanks to Israeli intransigence and US pusillanimity, this did not happen. Last Wednesday, he gave no date for Palestinian entry and simply said there was no route for Palestinian statehood except through direct negotiations with Israel. Obama did not mention a halt to Israeli settlements, refer to the border of the Palestinian state on the line of 1967, or give a timetable for results in the negotiations he wants to resume.

He spoke of Israel’s need to live at peace with its neighbours who, he said, untruthfully, had repeatedly waged war on Israel. He did not admit it was Israel that constantly mounted military campaigns against countries in the region. He did not note that the Arabs have only initiated conflict with Israel once, in 1973.

Israel was the aggressor in 1948, 1956, 1967, 1978, 1982, 1996, 2002, 2006, and 2008-09 and numerous skirmishes in between. Writing in The Irish Times on the morning after Obama delivered his dud address, Lara Marlowe exposed Obama as a hollow man. “It was Israel and the US alone against the world yesterday.” She cited last year’s enthusiastic welcome of Obama’s pledge to recommit to multilateralism and to the emergence of Palestine.

At that time, he “was greeted with thunderous applause.” But this year the Assembly chamber was silent, even shocked by his attitude. “A chasm had opened up with Europe…” she observed, pointing out that French President Nicolas Sarkozy put forward “a peace plan with deadlines and an interim status for the Palestinians” — as citizens in a “non-member state,” the operative word here being “state.”

The Israeli liberal daily Haaretz reported that Obama’s speech received “a kosher seal of approval” from none other than Israeli Foreign Minister Avigdor Lieberman for delivering what the paper called “the warmest pro-Israel speech ever given at an annual General Assembly meeting by any US president, bar none.” Israeli commentators have quipped that Obama is the “first Jewish president” of the US. This is, of course, unfair since many US Jews do not support the hardline adopted by Netanyahu and his right-wing expansionist government.

Obama’s strategy seems to be to show a great deal of empathy for Israel at a time it is under more pressure than ever. Obama seems to believe this could tempt Netanyahu to restart negotiations. Talks with the Palestinians are the last thing he wants, particularly if asked to commit to a reference to the 1967 border, demanded by the Palestinians, and a definite timetable, demanded by Sarkozy.

A Palestinian attending the Ramallah celebrations marking Abbas’ UN bid reported that Michelle Obama, the president’s wife, observed that her husband’s great fault is that “he never finishes anything.” If indeed she made such a remark and if it is correct, it is a tragic and dangerous fault. It is tragic and dangerous because he is president just at the time the US must press Netanyahu to reach a deal acceptable to the Palestinians and the Arabs.

Failure to do so will mean another century of conflict and instability in a strategic region already unsettled due to the Arab Spring. If the Palestinians are denied independence in a viable state, Israel will never have peace and security.

Obama understood this when he gave historic speeches in Cairo in 2009 and at the UN in 2010. But his influence and popularity have been eroded by the US economic crisis, the determination of the Republican right to drive him from office, and his failure to assert leadership. Obama is now a president desperately running for a second term. He will do whatever it takes to get re-elected, even damn the Palestinians to eternal Israeli occupation.

( / 24.09.2011)

Netherlands: PM warns Wilders of overemphasising Moroccan crime

Netherlands: PM warns Wilders of overemphasising Moroccan crime

Rutte told Wilders (NL) that Wilder is known for his anti-Islam agenda, but that criminal Moroccan youth don’t go to the mosque on Friday, and neither do Antillian youth. Rutte therefore asked whether it’s a good idea to continue with the anti-Islamization agenda if he wants to fight crime.

Wilders answered that his party strives both to stop the building of mosques and to deal
with criminal Moroccan youth. On the former they don’t get their wish, but on the latter they’re trying to find a solution with the cabinet.

Via RNW:

Prime Minister Mark Rutte has crossed swords in parliament with
populist Freedom Party (PVV) leader Geert Wilders. The PVV has an agreement to support the minority centre-right government from parliament on most issues.

At one point, the two men shouted at each other to “behave normally”. The exchange followed the prime minister objecting to an earlier
statement by a PVV MP, calling Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan an “Islamic monkey”.

Mr Rutte also warned the PVV leader against overemphasising the problem of criminality amongst Dutch-Moroccan youths. He told Mr Wilders that this could lead to the alienation of law-abiding and highly
qualified members of the Dutch-Moroccan community. Mr Wilders countered that such people should take the criminal members of their community in hand.


( / 24.09.2011)

Israeli Fin. Min. calls for imposing sanctions on Palestinians

Israeli finance minister Yuval Steinitz called Saturday for imposing sanctions against the Palestinian Authority (PA) if it continued its attempts to have a voting in the UN Security Council (UNSC) or the UN General Assembly on a statehood.
Steinitz was quoted by the Israeli radio as saying that Israel should “impose sanctions on the Palestinian Authority in such a case that includes halting of revenues of taxes on good imported to the Palestinian areas through Israeli ports.” If the PA decided to start serious peace talks with Israel and shows readiness to achieve a settlement, he added, “then imposing such sanctions will not be necessary.
“The actions of PA in the next few days will determine the Israeli strategy in future,” he said. Revenues collected by Israel for the PA are amounted to around USD 135 million every month.

( /24.09.2011)

Syrische troepen doden 13 burgers

Syrische troepen hebben vandaag minstens 13 burgers gedood, bijna allen in de stad Homs. Ze werden gedood tijdens zoekacties naar bepaalde mensen in de regio, meldden activisten.

Daarnaast heeft het leger twee lijken van gedode demonstranten terugbezorgd aan de familie.

Volgens de Verenigde Naties zijn 2700 mensen gedood sinds de onrust in maart begon. De internationale gemeenschap oefent druk uit op president Bashar al-Assad om te stoppen met het geweld, tot nog toe zonder enig resultaat.

( / 24.09.2011)

Blair attacks Palestinian bid for state recognition as ‘deeply confrontational’

Tony Blair yesterday condemned a ‘deeply confrontational’ move by the Palestinian president to ask the United Nations to recognise an independent state for his people.

Mr Blair, who is the international community’s Middle East representative, joined Western leaders in opposing the application by Mahmoud Abbas.

Mr Abbas is seeking full UN membership for Palestine, even though Israeli troops still occupy its territory.

Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas
'Deeply confrontational': Tony Blair has today cautioned against Palestinian statehood

Opposition: Tony Blair, who is the international community’s Middle East representative, joined Western leaders in opposing the application for recognition by Palestinian president Mahmoud Abbas

He handed his application letter to UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and it must now be considered by the Security Council.

In a 35-minute speech in New York, Mr Abbas said it was the ‘moment of truth’ for Palestine to gain its long overdue independence.

America has promised to use its Security Council veto to block the move, however, and there are fears of renewed violence in the Middle East.

Israel argues that a lasting settlement can be brought to the war-torn region only by face-to-face negotiations.

That view is shared by Mr Blair, who said UN recognition would do nothing to advance Palestinian independence.

‘You can pass whatever resolution you like at  the United Nations or the Security Council, it doesn’t actually deliver you a state on the ground in the West Bank and Gaza, and if you don’t have a negotiation, whatever you do at the UN is going to be deeply confrontational,’ the former PM said yesterday.

Israeli Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu said his country was 'willing to make painful compromises'Israeli Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu said his country was ‘willing to make painful compromises’

But there was no such obvious opposition from David Cameron, who has yet to make clear whether he will oppose the move.

Earlier this week the Prime Minister said: ‘We support Palestine having its own state next to a secure Israel.

‘In the end we have to recognise we will get a Palestinian state alongside an Israeli state by the Palestinians and the Israelis sitting down and talking to each other.’

On the UN action, he added: ‘We don’t yet know what resolution is going to be put forward, what it is going to say, what its terms are.

‘There will only be one test for British policy, which is: Will this help to bring about the establishment of a state for the Palestinians next to a secure state for Israel?’

Even as Mr Abbas spoke yesterday, tensions were running high in the West Bank.

As Israeli troops and protesters exchanged rocks and rubber bullets in the West Bank, Mr Abbas was greeted with rapturous applause as he addressed a sympathetic UN general assembly in New York.

‘The time has come for the Palestinian spring, the time for independence,’ he said.

‘The time has come for our men, women and children to have normal lives. For them to be able to sleep without fear of what the next day will bring.

‘It is time for the Palestinian people to gain their freedom and their independence.’

Negotiations with Israel ‘will be meaningless’ as long as it continues building on lands the Palestinians claim for their state, Mr Abbas declared, warning that his government could collapse if the construction persists.

‘This policy is responsible for the continued failure of the successive international attempts to salvage the peace process,’ said the president, who has refused to negotiate until the construction stops.

‘This settlement policy threatens to also undermine the structure of the Palestinian National Authority and even end its existence.’

To another round of applause, he held up a copy of the formal membership application and said he had asked UN chief Ban Ki-moon to speed up consideration of his request to have the United Nations recognise a Palestinian state in the West Bank, Gaza Strip and east Jerusalem.

He concluded his speech by saying, ‘We have one goal: to be. And we shall be.’

He received a standing ovation at the end of his speech, and his jubilant mood was matched by the exuberant celebration of thousands of Palestinians who thronged around outdoor screens in town squares across the West Bank on Friday to see their president submit his historic request for recognition of a state of Palestine.
President Barack Obama and Mr Abbas are seen during a meeting in New York on WednesdayPresident Barack Obama and Mr Abbas are seen during a meeting in New York on Wednesday

‘I am with the president,’ said Muayad Taha, a 36-year-old physician, who brought his two children, ages 7 and 10, to witness the moment. ‘After the failure of all other methods we reached a stage of desperation.

Mr Abbas was followed to the podium by Israeli Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu, who said his country was ‘willing to make painful compromises.’

Mr Netanyahu said: ‘I extend my hand to the Palestinian people,’ adding that he wanted a ‘just and lasting peace’ with Palestine. But he opposed the bid for statehood, warning that it would inflame the situation.

‘I extend my hand to the Palestinian people, with whom we seek a just and lasting peace,’ he said, to long applause.

Palestinians, he added, ‘should live in a free state of their own, but they should be ready for compromise’ and ‘start taking Israel’s security concerns seriously.’

Mr Netanyahu offered to meet Mr Abbas in the Palestinian city of Ramallah, but added that he would be willing to meet for talks in New York tonight.

He said: ‘Who’s there to stop us? What is there to stop us? I’ll tell you my needs and concerns, you’ll tell me yours. And with God’s help we’ll find the common ground of peace.’

In Gaza, the ruling Hamas party criticised the request to the UN, claiming there were better ways to put pressure on Israel.

  Palestinian statehood

The Islamist group said Palestinians should liberate their land by force and not ‘beg’ for UN recognition.

The issue of recognising Palestine has divided the international community, whose leaders are anxious not to antagonise either side.

Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg admitted there had been debates at the top of British government over a response.

The move is hugely symbolic for many Palestinians who have wearied of two decades of failed U.S.-sponsored peace talks.

At the same time, they have grown alarmed by the continuing influx of Jewish settlers on to land they want for their state.

Even if the UN recognises Palestine, there will be few immediate changes on the ground: Israel will continue to occupy the West Bank and east Jerusalem and to restrict access to Gaza, ruled by Hamas militants.

Security Council action on the membership request could take weeks or months.

The strategy has put the Palestinians in direct confrontation with the U.S., which has threatened to veto their membership bid in the Council, saying that statehood can only be achieved through direct negotiations between the parties to end the long and bloody

Violence: A Palestinian holds a slingshot as others roll tyres to burn during clashes with Israeli soldiers, at the Qalandia checkpoint between the West Bank city of Ramallah and JerusalemViolence: A Palestinian holds a slingshot as others roll tyres to burn during clashes with Israeli soldiers, at the Qalandia checkpoint between the West Bank city of Ramallah and Jerusalem

Religious unrest: Palestinian demonstrators carry a slingshot and rocks past a burning rubbish bin during clashes with Israeli soldiers today

Religious unrest: Palestinian demonstrators carry a slingshot and rocks past a burning rubbish bin during clashes with Israeli soldiers

By seeking approval at a world forum overwhelmingly sympathetic to their quest, Palestinians hope to make it harder for Israel to resist global pressure to negotiate the borders of a future Palestine based on lines Israel held before capturing the West Bank, east Jerusalem and Gaza in 1967.

The U.S. and Israel have been pressuring Council members to either vote against the plan or abstain when it comes up for a vote. The vote would require the support of nine of the Council’s 15 members to pass, but even if the Palestinians could secure that backing, the U.S. says it will veto the move.

The resumption of talks seems an elusive goal, with both sides digging in to positions that have tripped up negotiations for years.

Talks broke down nearly three years ago after Israel went to war in the Gaza Strip. A last round was launched a year ago, but broke down just three weeks later.

( / 24.09.2011)

Frankrijk spreekt vonnis uit over boerkaboete

In Frankrijk heeft een rechter voor het eerst een vonnis uitgesproken op basis van het boerkaverbod dat daar sinds 11 april geldt.


Hind Ahmas

De boete geldt voor de 32-jarige Hind Ahmas die in het openbaar een nikab droeg die haar gehele gezicht, op haar ogen na, bedekte. Hiervoor moet zij 120 euro betalen. Een tweede vrouw moet volgens de rechter 80 euro betalen. De vrouwen kregen de boete toen zij in nikab een amandeltaart aanboden aan de burgemeester van Meaux, Jean-Francois Copé, initiatiefnemer van het boerkaverbod. Een taart met een dubbele boodschap: amandel is namelijk ‘amande’ in het frans, maar als je de ‘a’ in een ‘e’ verandert, krijg je ‘amende’, wat boete betekent. Een boetetaart dus.



Volgens onze correspondent Ron Linker in Parijs was de taart onderdeel van een groot media-offensief dat de twee vrouwen voeren. “Ze hebben het bewust op een boete laten aankomen zodat ze deze konden aanvechten bij de rechter.” Nu de rechter een uitspraak heeft gedaan, kunnen ze naar het Europese Hof voor de Rechten van de Mens stappen. Ahmas heeft al aangegeven dit te zullen doen. Tegelijkertijd met de uitspraak van de rechter kondigde vandaag een vrouw in Meaux aan dat zij zich kandidaat stelt voor de aankomende presidentsverkiezingen. Dit deed zij in nikab. Ook dit hoort bij de publiciteitsstunt: “De Franse media zijn daarom ook erg terughoudend met berichtgeving over deze kwesties. Het zijn vooral de buitenlandse media die het nieuws oppikken”, aldus Ron Linker.


Rachid Nekkaz

In Frankrijk zijn al vaker boetes uitgedeeld aan vrouwen die een boerka of nikab dragen. Deze zijn echter altijd betaald door de vrouwen zelf of door de Franse zakenman Rachid Nekkaz. Hij heeft namelijk een fonds opgericht met daarin een paar miljoen euro om de boetes te betalen die op basis van boerkaverboden worden uitgedeeld. Dit doet hij ook voor Nederland en België, waar sinds kort ook een boerkaverbod geldt.

( / 24.09.2011)

Israel’s political tsunami has arrived

Reactions to Abbas and Netanyahu’s addresses to the UN are clear illustrations of Abbas’ ascent to political rock star status and Netanyahu’s increasing international isolation.

Half an hour before Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas went up to the podium at the UN General Assembly, Salva Kiir, president of the world’s youngest country, South Sudan, was giving his own speech. As he went on, a slow buzz began to spread throughout the hall.

World leaders, foreign ministers and ambassadors came in one after the other and filled the empty spots in the auditorium. The seats reserved for guests and journalists were also quickly taken. When Kiir finished his speech, everyone expected Abbas to speak next, but due to a change in the schedule the president of Armenia ascended the stage. The large crowd of people impatiently anticipating the day’s main event heaved a communal grunt of dissatisfaction over the unexpected warm-up show.

Had a stranger stumbled into the General Assembly on Friday, they might have thought Lady Gaga – or at least Madonna – was about to perform, and not the somber Abbas. Dozens of people who couldn’t find a seat stood along the walls of the hall, while others sat down on the stairs. When Abbas’ name was announced, the crowd rose to its feet and received him with applause befitting nothing less than a rock star.

Abbas’ speech was unrelenting. A few of the things he said would even make Yossi Beilin or Shimon Peres cringe. When he talked about Palestine as a land holy to several religions, he mentioned Muslims and Christians, but failed to mention the Jews. He spoke of Israel’s ethnic cleansing of Palestinians in East Jerusalem and said that the IDF and settlers abuse farmers and sick people on their way to the hospital.

Yet all of this did not prevent the majority of the representatives in the hall to applaud Abbas, and even give him a standing ovation when he waved a copy of the letter he submitted earlier to UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon requesting membership to the UN. When Abbas yelled over the podium “enough, enough, enough,” the representatives of the world’s nations believed him.

Israel’s handling of the Palestinian bid reached an especially embarrassing peak during Abbas’ speech. Israel’s Foreign Minister Avigdor Lieberman, who entered the hall a few minutes before the speech began, decided once again to use an international diplomatic event for a little bit of internal politics.

When the Palestinian president began speaking, Lieberman stood up and left the room, as if Mahmoud Ahmadinejad himself was standing on stage. He later explained that he left in protest of Abbas’ “campaign” against Israel. Minister Yuli Edelstein left two minutes after him. Israel’s Ambassador to the UN Ron Prosor followed the two, leaving his deputy behind.

Netanyahu came to New York in a combative mood. A series of articles in the American press, that held him responsible for the deadlock in the peace process, disturbed him deeply. He was angry over what he coined “the New York discourse.”

The Israeli press became the “little devil”, in his eyes and Thomas Friedman became the “big devil.” On the one hand Netanyahu mocks anyone who attributes any real credence to Friedman, yet on the other hand he makes sure to read and get annoyed over every article he writes.

Netanyahu even mentioned this in his speech, when he said “better a bad press than a good eulogy, and better still would be a fair press whose sense of history extends beyond breakfast, and which recognizes Israel’s legitimate security concerns.”

The criticism Netanyahu received from former President Bill Clinton that evening made Netanyahu so mad that he asked his aides to request that the White House issue a statement distancing itself from Clinton’s statements.

When Netanyahu got up on stage there were already empty pockets in the hall. Many representatives, especially those from Arab countries, left after Abbas’ speech. The silence in the hall was also noticeable. The applause that interrupted Abbas’ speech several times was not extended to Netanyahu; the only applause he received was from his advisers and a small group of Jewish activists.

Netanyahu came to the UN to defend himself from international criticism of his government’s policies, and of him. His speech was aggressive and combative, but it was aimed more at Israeli public opinion than at those sitting in the General Assembly. Netanyahu focused on the basic fears and anxieties of every Israeli – from the Warsaw Ghetto to Hamas and Hezbollah rockets to the Iranian nuclear program.

Like Muammar Gadhafi, who stood at that podium a year earlier and called for the dismantling of the UN, Netanyahu also launched an attack on the organization that contributed significantly to the creation of the state of Israel. “A theater of the absurd” and “a house of lies and of darkness” were only some of the compliments Netanyahu bestowed upon the UN institutions.

Instead of a new political message or a groundbreaking initiative that would try to restart the peace process and put an end to Israeli’s diplomatic troubles, Netanyahu chose to give the audience a lesson in the Jewish people’s history, from King Hezekiah to the Pogroms to the present.

Netanyahu believes that there is nothing he can do to change the narrative that paints him as the one saying no to peace and the Palestinians as the side who desires it. Therefore, in his mind, “we must tell the truth until the world understands.” Some of his sentiments are justified. Even extremely justified. But Netanyahu is not asking himself  how he got to a situation where no one in the world believes a word he says in the first place.

Although the Palestinian state was not created at the UN over the weekend – and will probably not be created in the foreseeable future – this was without a doubt a historic event. The cold welcome Netanyahu received stood in stark contrast with the massive support Abbas received from the international community. If anyone still had any doubts – this what a political tsunami looks like, and this is what international isolation feels like.

( / 24.09.2011)