“We will never recognise or accept the deal as it aims to annex occupied Palestinian lands,” he confirmed at a meeting of provincial heads of the Justice and Development Party in Ankara.
As reported by Turkish newspaper, Daily Sabah, Erdoğan also announced that leaving the fate of Jerusalem and the Palestinians entirely in the “bloody claws” of Israel will be “the greatest evil in all humanity”.
Turkey does not have any problems with the Jewish people, Erdoğan stressed, but is against the oppressive policies of Israel which aim to usurp the rights of Palestinians.
The golden dome of mosque at Al-Aqsa is one of the most recognisable sights in the Middle East
By Nadda Osman
The golden dome of Al-Aqsa sits on top of Jerusalem’s Temple Mount, one of the most sacred locations on the planet and revered by Muslims, Christians and Jews alike.
The compound is the third holiest site in Islam. Built in the seventh century, it marks the spot where Islam believes the Prophet Muhammad ascended into heaven.
Its importance is underlined every year during the Night of Power, the holiest time of the holy month of Ramadan when Muslims believe the Quran was revealed to Muhammad. It was also Islam’s first qibla, the direction towards which Muslims pray, before it was replaced by Mecca in the year 623 CE.
The documentary One Night In Al Aqsa, which has its world premiere in London on 2 August, takes audiences on a journey into the compound through the people who live and work there.
The film is directed by Abrar Hussain, who first made his name with the Islam Channel shows Model Mosque – a reality show to find the UK’s best mosque – and Faith Off, an inter-religious game show.
His 2017 documentary One Day In The Haram showed parts of Mecca, Islam’s holiest site, which is only accessible to Muslims, including the daily routines of the workers and life for the millions of pilgrims who arrive for Hajj each year. Hussain turned his attention to Al-Aqsa because he thinks it has been neglected for too long.
“The love for Al-Aqsa isn’t what it should be among the Muslim community,” he told MEE, “so we wanted to make this to boost Al-Aqsa and do something comprehensive for its recognition. When the opportunity to cover Al-Aqsa came, I had to take it because it’s under threat.
“This wasn’t just about the place, it’s also about the people, the workers and the worshippers who live in such difficult conditions under occupation.”
As with Hussain’s previous film, One Night In Al Aqsa explores lesser-seen parts of the compound, from the muezzins calling worshippers to prayer to the role of female employees.
“Our aim was to show people a side of Al-Aqsa they’ve never seen before,” says Hussain, “we didn’t just want to regurgitate content.”
Choosing to shoot during the Night of Power was a deliberate choice. “We capture the atmosphere, how it feels, smells, how the heat is, we tried to make the film a very immersive experience.”
But with its location in the Old City of Jerusalem, Al-Aqsa has been a focus of tension between worshippers and Israeli authorities, who control the complex.
Muslims frequently face difficulties when entering the mosque at Al-Aqsa due to security measures imposed by the Israeli government. Restrictions are often placed on those trying to enter, with entrances being blocked.
Palestinian Muslims in Gaza do not have access to the mosque, while the 2.5 million Muslims in the West Bank can only do so with a permit: restrictions vary, including a total bar on certain days.
This year, for the first time since 2003, Palestinian worshippers were able to pray at the al-Rahma Gate, one of the doorways to the mosque.
From the start, the film team faced obstacles entering the compound and showing parts not seen before in such depth. “One of the major drawbacks was for the last two or three years in Jerusalem they’ve had a complete drone ban,” says Hussain, “and as a film-maker I use drones to get important shots that resonate with viewers. I tried our hardest to get permission but couldn’t.”
Instead Hussain and his team asked film-makers around Jerusalem if they had drone footage. “Many of them let us use it.”
The team also faced questions from guards and Israeli authorities, who also imposed restrictions. “We were operating with a small crew so we wouldn’t attract too much attention to ourselves,” Hussain says.
“We were very wary because even with permissions you could turn up at the gate and they would have to check the equipment or x-ray it, so we would take smaller cameras into the mosque and find ways around it.”
Getting into the compound was not the only problem the team faced, as Hussain and his eight camera crews negotiated the site, crammed with 400,000 worshippers who had endured intense heat after a day of fasting.
It is little wonder then that Hussain, who was sleep deprived and dehydrated, called Night of Power one of the hardest shoots of his life.
“The whole crew was shattered. We did a Fajr to Fajr [pre-dawn prayer] shoot and it fell on a Friday so we captured jum’aa [Friday congregational prayers]. I’ve worked in some pretty difficult places but that was probably the most difficult thing I’ve ever done.”
Have you ever wished for something so much, worked hard to get it, prayed for God to give it you, but never received it?
“It may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you like a thing which is bad for you. Allâh knows but you do not know” Quran 2:126.
Was your dua/prayer not answered?
Maybe you were not given what you wanted, only to be given something better?
Sometimes you may feel that Allah (S.W.T) didn’t give you the things that you wished for, but couldn’t it have been that you might be blessed by not having those things?
You might even come to know why you were not given those things or maybe you will never know.
Abu Hanifa’s life was full of things that he wished for, but not given. He was the grandson of Abu Bakr al-Siddiq (R.A) and his mother was the Princess of Persia. His maternal grandfather was Yazdegard, the King of Persia. His aunt was the mother of believers, Sayeda Aisha (R.A). He was one of the 7 jurists who laid down the foundations of Islamic jurisprudence. This diversity and wealth of his background could have contributed to him being such an extraordinary person. Diversity, tolerance and equality are values entrenched in Islam.
Both of his parents were killed in the conflict that erupted at the time of the Caliphate of Ali (R.A). Sometimes, we are subjected to trials and tribulations, but these ordeals could be meant to benefit us in ways we are not aware of.
This is stated in the Holy Quran,“O ye who believe! Ye are forbidden to inherit women against their will. Nor should ye treat them with harshness, that ye may take away part of the dower ye have given them – except where they have been guilty of open lewdness; on the contrary, live with them on a footing of kindness and equity. If ye take a dislike to them it maybe that ye dislike a thing, and Allah brings about through it a great deal of good” 4:19.
After the loss of his parents, Abu Hanifa was raised by his aunt, Sayeda Aisha (R.A.), who had not been blessed with any children of her own. Indeed, Allah (S.W.T) had given Abu Hanifa a very privileged upbringing by one of the greatest and most revered ladies in Islam. Almost one third of hadiths (sayings of the Prophet pbuh) and Islamic jurisprudence comes from Sayeda Aisha (R.A). She raised Abu Hanifa to become one of the most prominent intellectual figures in Islamic history, whose influence extends to this day on Muslim jurisprudence.
If you always wished for something and did everything you could to get it but you were unsuccessful, it might mean that Allah (S.W.T) wants something better for you. You can still keep trying but keep in mind that your effort will not be wasted as Allah (S.W.T) will either give you what you want or better Insha’allah.
Don’t feel demoralised!
Never lose hope!
Always remember that your efforts will be rewarded Insha’allah. We are rewarded according to our intentions and to our efforts in pursuing them. If we are not granted success, we will still be rewarded for our efforts and intentions Insha’allah.
The Holy Quran states,“As to those who believe and work righteousness, verily we shall not suffer to perish the reward of any who do a (single) righteous deed” 18:30.
Abu Hanifa recognised Allah’s (S.W.T) blessings on him when he acknowledged that Sayeda Aisha (R.A.) had been a better mother than all mothers he has encountered in his life.
Sometimes, we overlook the blessings we have. We take what we have for granted. Maybe it is time that we look around us with a fresh perspective and see all the blessings we have in a new light. It is time to be thankful to all those who make our life meaningful. It is time to show your appreciation and gratitude. The Prophet (P.B.U.H) said:“He has not thanked Allah (S.W.T) who has not thanked people.”
Abu Hanifa once said to Sayeda Aisha (R.A.), “I hope to be like my grandfather, Abu Bakr al-Siddiq (R.A)”.
She replied by saying, “If you want to achieve prominence in life, you can do it by pursuing knowledge and science. If you want to succeed in the afterlife, you can do it by pursuing knowledge and science. And if you want to succeed in both life and afterlife, you can still do it by pursuing knowledge and science”.
Islam commands us to seek knowledge, science and progress. For a lot of people that seek knowledge, it is only limited to acquiring a degree.
The importance of learning and science in Islam
Islam encourages us to pursue knowledge, intellect and contribute to human progress through thinking, writing and working towards breakthroughs in every field. Seeking knowledge and intellect is a way of life in Islam. It is something that we all should do in every possible way. The first word in Quran is Iqra which means read or recite. Isn’t this a clear message from God that Islam is about learning?
We as Muslims are weak because we have abandoned the core Islamic principle of seeking knowledge and science. We now think that the only learning we need to do is that which leads to a degree that qualifies for a job.
We have to read and learn about everything around us: politics, history, art, etc. We have to form our views on a solid foundation of independent thinking and objectivity.
We have to be knowledgeable and well read. We have to strive to reach the limits of intellect. A nation can only progress when values of learning, knowledge and science are sanctified and upheld.
Indeed a nation will decline once these values are ignored and demoted.
May Allah (S.W.T) guide us in seeking that knowledge.
This article is based on Dr. Amr Khaled’s lecture:
In a communiqué at the end of their two-week meeting, the bishops demanded that Israel accept United Nations’ resolutions, calling for an end to its occupation of Arab lands and told Israel it shouldn’t use the Bible to justify injustices against the Palestinians.
The Church is standing up against Israeli injustices, while our Mosque leaders are busy wasting our time, at every Friday prayer with irrelevant speeches on marginal repetitive issues.
In Islam, Mosques are not only a place of worship, they are a place where knowledge, science, debate and community issues are addressed.
Mosques should function more or less like a University, where people learn to achieve excellence in science, intellect, business, social cohesion and all other fields.
The pursuit of knowledge, science, excellence, tolerance and social cohesion, are cardinal parts of the role of the mosque.
Speak to your Mosque committee, ask them what have they done to fulfil their Islamic duty towards Muslims and Britain in the following areas:
Fighting extremism and promoting tolerance. 2. Providing educational programmes, encouraging Muslim youth to achieve excellence and success in the fields of science, business, art etc. 3. Fighting racism. 4. Political awareness and political activism. 5. Enhancing Muslims integration in British society. 6. Media engagement 7. Fighting anti social behaviour and crime. 8. Fighting Islamophobia and negative stereotypes. 9. Having a fair representation of women and youth on the committee. 10. Holding open days for non-Muslims, to promote a positive picture of Islam.
Mosques need to address these issues, because that’s what Mosques should do. The Mosque should be an educational establishment, that enlightens the wider community with tolerance, progress, partnership and excellence.
We have all faced turmoil in our lives. We are tested. We all have to be tested.
وَلَنَبْلُوَنَّكُمْ بِشَيْءٍ مِّنَ الْخَوفْ وَالْجُوعِ وَنَقْصٍ مِّنَ الأَمَوَالِ وَالأنفُسِ وَالثَّمَرَاتِ وَبَشِّرِ الصَّابِرِينَ Quran [2:155]: ” Be sure we shall test you with something of fear and hunger, some loss in goods or lives or the fruits (of your toil), but give glad tidings to those who patiently persevere.”
Quran [3:146]: “And Allaah loves As-Saabiroon (the patient).”
Quran [39:10]: “Only those who are patient shall receive their reward in full, without reckoning.”
If you were to list all the major catastrophes that you have encountered in your life, what have you lost? Why are you unhappy? Are you being ungrateful for all the blessings that you have?
The Tābi‘ūn (Followers) are the generation of Muslims who were born after the death of the Prophet Muhammad PBUH, but who were contemporaries of the Sahaba (Companions of the Prophet PBUH).
Let’s look at the life of an important follower. The follower is a great lady. She was tested throughout her life, with the harshest of tribulations. Her grandfather is Prophet Muhammad PBUH. She is Sayeda Zaynab bint Ali. She is the sister of Al Hassan and Al Hussein PBU them.
All the disasters in her life were tests. The more she was tested, the more she gave and contributed to society.
We all have to go through ordeals, trials and tribulations in our lives. That is life, it is a series of tests. The greater the trial, the greater the reward. We are tried by blessings, as well as by tribulations in our lives.
There is not a single person who is immune from life’s troubles. It is those who have strong faith in God that will never lose hope and will always have the strength to carry on.
Prophet Muhammad PBUH lost several of his children in his lifetime; he lost 3 of his daughters in 2 years. The Prophet was especially compassionate towards children.
When facing tribulations, you have to be patient and steadfast in your faith. If you feel defeated or depressed, use your faith to stand back on your feet. God is hope. If you lose hope, you will go down a spiral of desperation with serious consequences.
Quran 12:87:”O my sons! go ye and enquire about Joseph and his brother, and never give up hope of Allah’s Soothing Mercy: truly no one despairs of Allah’s Soothing Mercy, except those who have no faith.”
Quran [94:5]: “So, verily, with every difficulty, there is relief.” This reiterated in [94:6]: ”Verily, with every difficulty there is relief.”
Quran [65:7]: “Allah puts no burden on any person beyond what He has given him. After a difficulty, Allah will soon grant relief.”
There is hope, keep the hope alive, use it to empower yourself and others into thinking positively and taking positive action.
The path of desperation is littered with sadness and self loathing. These are destructive feelings that can lead to very sad endings. Be resolute and determined to defy all odds. Be the positive light in peoples’ lives – Muslims and non Muslims.
Raise your children to see you as caring and revering. Be gentle and loving, follow the example of the Prophet PBUH in treating your spouse, your family and all those around you (Muslims and non Muslims) with kindness, fairness and respect.
When Sayeda Zaynab PBUH was 7, she lost her grandfather the Prophet PBUH. Six months later she lost her mother. In her mother’s last moment, she said to Sayeda Zaynab PBUH: ‘O Zaynab, your brothers Al Hassan and Al Hussein are older than you, but you have to be a mother for them.’ Her mother also told her: ‘Your grandfather the Prophet Muhammad is now dead, be a mother to Prophet Muhammad’s Ummah.’
To fulfill her mother’s will, Sayeda Zaynab PBUH – who was still a child, found herself responsible for her older brothers, her father and the entire Ummah.
When she was 10 years old, she used to invite the poor and cook for them. She became the founding pioneer of voluntary and charity work. The first Muslim care home was established by Sayeda Zaynab PBUH. She was the first Muslim to establish an orphanage.
Her father, the great Caliph Ali PBUH, would always seek to consult her. While she was young, she helped shape her father’s historic decisions that affected the history of the Islamic empire. She also influenced her brother Al Hassan’s critical decisions in the hard times that ensued.
Do you consult your mother? Your wife? Your sister? Your daughter?
Do you follow the role models of Islam in revering the women in your life?
If you don’t, you are guilty of breaching the high standards of respect for women required by Islam.
There are some Muslims who oppose paid work and voluntary work for women. How can they challenge the role of women in Islam? How can they ignore the example of the great women in Islam, who not only contributed to voluntary work, but were at its forefront as pioneers? Women in Islam work and contribute in every field of human endeavour from business and science to voluntary work.
Caliph Ali PBUH and his son Al Hassan PBUH not only valued Sayeda Zaynab’s PBUH opinions wholeheartedly; they also supported her in her voluntary work.
She was able to expand her voluntary work and opened another branch for her establishment in Kouffa. Her husband financed her work.
She lost her father, her son and her 2 brothers; she returned to Medina and was forced to leave Medina in the political turbulence that ensued. After going through all this, she established another care home for the elderly in Egypt. Her answer to the ordeals in her life was to give more compassion, love and care to others.
Can you try to be as patient and strong as she was? Can you try to be a force of goodness and compassion as she was?
Quran [39:10]: ‘Say: “O ye my servants who believe! Fear your Lord, good is (the reward) for those who do good in this world. Spacious is Allah’s earth! those who patiently persevere will truly receive a reward without measure!”‘
This article is adapted from Dr. Amr Khaled’s lecture, he is an Egyptian televangelist. His work influenced Arab youth and has contributed to the calls for change in the Middle East.
Amr Khaled is an Egyptian televangelist. His work influenced Arab youth and has contributed to the calls for change in the Middle East. He was voted as one of the most influential people in the world by Times Magazine.
Prophet Mohammad PBUH emphasised how Allah values a just ruler when he said: “There are seven whom Allah will shade in His Shade on the Day when there is no shade except His Shade: a just ruler; a youth who grew up in the worship of Allah, the Mighty and Majestic; a man whose heart is attached to the mosques; two men who love each other for Allah’s sake, meeting for that and parting upon that; a man who is called by a woman of beauty and position [for illegal intercourse], but be says: ‘I fear Allaah’; a man who gives in charity and hides it, such that his left hand does not know what his right hand gives in charity; and a man who remembered Allaah in private and so his eyes shed tears.” [Al-Bukhaari and Muslim]
Allah says in the Quran (5:8): “O you who believe! Stand out firmly for Allah as witnesses to fair dealings and let not the hatred of others to you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice. Be just, that is next to piety. Fear Allah, indeed Allah is well-acquainted with all that you do.”
We can learn a lot from looking at an incident that surrounds Amr Ibn Al Aas, who was a companion of the Prophet PBUH and also the ruler of Egypt under the rightly guided Caliph Umar Ibn al -Khattab.
A man from the Copts (Copts are Egyptian Christians) came to Umar ibn al-Khattab in Al-Madinah and said: “O Commander of the Faithful! I seek refuge in you from oppression.” Umar RA replied: “You have sought refuge where it is to be sought.” The Egyptian (Copt) said: “I was racing the son of ‘Amr ibn al-’Aas, and I defeated him. Then he (the son of Amr Ibn Al Aas) began to beat me with a whip saying: I am the Son of Nobles! (He is referring to the fact that his father is a companion of the Prophet and the ruler of Egypt).”
As a result, Umar RA (the Caliph) wrote to Amr (the ruler of Egypt) commanding him to come with his son. When they came to Umar he inquired: “Where is the Egyptian (Copt)?” And then said: “The Egyptian (Copt) has to take the whip and beat your son Amr!” Consequently, the Egyptian began actually to beat the son of Amr with the whip while, Umar RA says to him: “Beat the Son of Nobles!”
Anas said, “So he beat him. I swear by Allah, as he was beating him, we all pitied his wailing. He did not desist until we stopped him.” Then Umar told the Copt to beat Amr. He (the Copt) replied: “O Commander of the Faithful! It was his son who beat me, and I have evened the score with him.”
Caliph Umar RA’s famous quote encapsulates the essence of justice in Islam, “Since when do you enslave the people when their mothers bore them as free?”. Amr said: “O Commander of the Faithful! I was unaware of this, and he (the Copt) did not come to me (seeking justice).”
The lesson learnt here is that Islam is an egalitarian religion where Muslims and non Muslims have equal rights. The model of leadership presented by the Prophet Mohammad PBUH and the rightly guided Caliphs, exemplifies how Muslim leaders should rule with Islamic values, of justice, meritocracy, equality etc. Thus this necessitates that we hold our rulers and politicians accountable if they fail to apply these values, whether deliberately or not. Holding politicians to account and opposing their wrong doing is an important part of our Islamic duties to forbid evil. The Ummah (Muslim nation) is in such a sad state of affairs because we allowed corrupt incompetent and criminal dictators to rule us.
One of the biggest enemies of Muslims is the dictatorial tyrannical governments that are ruling Muslim countries. These tyrants are a plague on Muslims. They are an obstacle to progress and development. These corrupt regimes are obstacles to science, justice and progress.
May the Arab Spring succeed in toppling corrupt governments and shake the thrones of tyrants.
International Union of Muslim Scholars (IUMS) Secretary General Ali Al-Qaradaghi
The International Union of Muslim Scholars called on Thursday to reject the normalisation categorically with the Israeli entity.
This came in the concluding statement of the fifth session of the General Assembly in Istanbul that more than 1,500 scholars from more than 80 countries attended throughout six days. The meeting is the largest in the history of the Union regarding the number of participants.
The Union also called for the release of prisoners of conscience and advice, especially scholars in Egypt, Saudi Arabia and the UAE, and for a comprehensive reconciliation within the Islamic Ummah which suffers from a severe division among all its components.
The statement, read by the Secretary-General of the Union, Ali al-Qaradaghi, stressed that “the sanctity of blood must be preserved against murder and fighting among Muslims, and assaults on the lives, money and honour should be criminalised.”
It stressed the need to uphold unity, peaceful coexistence and civilised communication, and warned of the danger of separation and division.
According to the statement, the present scholars emphasised the belief in cultural and religious pluralism, away from all disputes of hegemony and the use of force in resolving international disputes, and called for civilisational dialogue instead of conflict.
They also emphasised the right to difference, responsible freedom and justice in rights and duties. The statement stressed the call for disciplined freedom, justice, eliminating injustice and tyranny by legitimate peaceful means, and the right of peoples to their freedom, dignity, and self-determination. They also stressed the importance of resistance to all forms of tyranny and exploitation, and the means of injustice and arrogance, and claimed that resistance should abide by the legitimate peaceful methods and find support from all liberation forces, according to the statement.
In its statement, the International Union of Muslim Scholars urged states which have prisoners of conscience and advice to release them, especially “Union scholars in Egypt, Saudi Arabia and the UAE.” The Union believed that the Ummah should move towards comprehensive transformation by reforming its political system to be rational, based on justice and freedom, and improving its educational system in a manner that keeps up with the time and eliminates underdevelopment, addition to the need to reform its jurisprudential system to achieve renewal, its economic system to achieve comprehensive development, eliminate poverty and unemployment, and its social system.
The statement referred to the Palestinian cause saying that it is and will remain the first issue of Muslims all over the world, and it is going today through a critical historical phase and a dangerous crossroads.
It added that Al-Quds Al-Sharif is exposed to Judaization, and Zionists are constantly storming and threatening Al-Aqsa Mosque, and trying to divide it temporally and spatially. We stress that Jerusalem and its cause have a religious, historical and civilisational status. It is the heart of the Islamic Ummah and its dignity. All the projects of the Jewish occupation will not change the fact that Jerusalem is for the Islamic and Arab Ummah.
The Union called on “Arab and Islamic governments, and scientific and civil institutions to bear the entrusted responsibility towards the sanctities of the nation and its major issues, and to categorically reject normalisation.” It considered that “resisting the occupier is a legitimate right in all heavenly laws and international covenants.”Al-Qaradaghi considered that “the legendary steadfastness is the beginning of the liberation of the Palestinian land and holy sites.” He appealed to “the Islamic Ummah in all its components to support this great struggling person.” He called for “the importance of making efforts and the need to confront injustice against our brothers in Myanmar, China and other areas.”As for minorities, the Union praised “states that protect their rights in Europe and elsewhere.” It condemned violence, segregation and terrorism wherever it was, and denounced “inciting nationalistic feelings, racism, racial discrimination and Islamophobia.”
The Union called on “the Muslim minority to abide by the requirements of citizenship, the performance of duties, the respect of laws, and the orientation towards useful sciences and influential actions.”
On Thursday, the Union’s Board of Trustees re-elected Ali Mohieddin Al-Qaradaghi, Secretary-General of the Union, according to Anadolu sources. On Wednesday, the Union elected the Moroccan Ahmad Al-Raysuni as a President of the Union, successor to Dr Yusuf Al-Qaradawi, according to sources in the Union.
More than 1,500 scholars from more than 80 countries participated in the General Assembly, the largest meeting of participants since the founding of the International Union of Muslim Scholars in 2004. The International Union of Muslim Scholars is a famous Islamic institution, founded in 2004 in Dublin, Ireland, and includes members from countries of the Muslim world, minorities and Islamic groups abroad.
It is a non-governmental institution with a legal personality and a private budget. In 2011, the headquarters of the Union was moved to the Qatari capital of Doha, by a decision of the Executive Council of the Union. The Union manages the General Assembly, the Board of Trustees, the Executive Office, the Presidency of the Union and the Secretariat. It aims to be a fundamental reference to the theory and rationalisation of the civilised project of the Muslim Ummah in the context of its peaceful coexistence with the rest of humanity.
The Integrity Foundation for Humanitarian and Human Rights (Hayat Haq) has expressed its support for the decision of the European Court of Human Rights, which considered that insulting the Prophet Muhammad does not fall under the framework of freedom of expression.
The Integrity Foundation said in a statement that “the European Court’s decision reinforces the freedom and rights of religious belief, one of the pillars of freedom in democratic societies governed by law”.
On Thursday, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that “insulting the Prophet Muhammad – peace be upon him – does not fall within the freedom of expression, and considered that the conviction of an Austrian court for a woman accused of insulting the Holy Prophet does not violate the right to freedom of expression, nor Chapter X of the European Charter of Human Rights”.
The Integrity Foundation explained that the decision of the European Court comes in the context of encouraging the protection of and respect for the religious feelings of Muslims and functions mainly to promote community peace.
The Foundation noted that the European Court “has cleared up the distinction between the right to freedom of expression and what is considered an infringement of this right and the abuse of religious feelings of individuals and communities”.
The decision of the European Court of Human Rights came in support of a judicial ruling issued in Austria in 2009 against an Austrian woman who the regional courts fined €480 ($548), in addition to litigation charges, for the abuse of Prophet Muhammad.
Supporters of the boycott argue that the Hajj ritual has become too expensive
Muslim Hajj pilgrims try to touch Kaaba stone as they circumambulate around the Kaaba, Islam’s holiest site, located in the center of the Masjid al-Haram (Grand Mosque) in Mecca, Saudi Arabia on 22 August, 2017