Justice in Islam

The Meaning of Justice

In the Islamic worldview, justice denotes placing things in their rightful place.  It also means giving others equal treatment.  In Islam, justice is also a moral virtue and an attribute of human personality, as it is in the Western tradition.  Justice is close to equality in the sense that it creates a state of equilibrium in the distribution of rights and duties, but they are not identical.  Sometimes, justice is achieved through inequality, like in unequal distribution of wealth.  The Prophet of Islam declared:

“There are seven categories of people whom God will shelter under His shade on the Day when there will be no shade except His.  [One is] the just leader.”(Saheeh Muslim)

God spoke to His Messenger in this manner:

“O My slaves, I have forbidden injustice for Myself and forbade it also for you.  So avoid being unjust to one another.” (Saheeh Muslim)

Thus, justice represents moral rectitude and fairness, since it means things should be where they belong.

The Importance of Justice

The Quran, the sacred scripture of Islam, considers justice to be a supreme virtue.  It is a basic objective of Islam to the degree that it stands next in order of priority to belief in God’s exclusive right to worship (Tawheed) and the truth of Muhammad’s prophethood.  God declares in the Quran:

“God commands justice and fair dealing…” (Quran 16:90)

And in another passage:

“O you who believe, be upright for God, and (be) bearers of witness with justice!…” (Quran 5:8)

Therefore, one may conclude that justice is an obligation of Islam and injustice is forbidden.  The centrality of justice to the Quranic value system is displayed by the following verse:

“We sent Our Messengers with clear signs and sent down with them the Book and the Measure in order to establish justice among the people…” (Quran 57:25)

The phrase ‘Our Messengers’ shows that justice has been the goal of all revelation and scriptures sent to humanity.  The verse also shows that justice must be measured and implemented by the standards and guidelines set by revelation.  Islam’s approach to justice is comprehensive and all-embracing.  Any path that leads to justice is deemed to be in harmony with Islamic Law.  God has demanded justice and, although He has not prescribed a specific route, has provided general guidelines, on how to achieve it.  He has neither prescribed  a fixed means by which it can be obtained, nor has He declared invalid any particular means or methods that can lead to justice.  Therefore, all means, procedures, and methods that facilitate, refine, and advance the cause of justice, and do not violate the Islamic Law are valid.

Equality in Justice

The Quranic standards of justice transcend considerations of race, religion, color, and creed, as Muslims are commanded to be just to their friends and foes alike, and to be just at all levels, as the Quran puts it:

“O you who believe!  Stand out firmly for justice, as witnesses to Allah, even if it be against yourselves, your parents, and your relatives, or whether it is against the rich or the poor…” (Quran 4:135)

According to another Quranic passage:

“Let not the hatred of a people swerve you away from justice.  Be just, for this is closest to righteousness…” (Quran 5:8)

With regards to relations with non-Muslims, the Quran further states:

“God does not forbid you from doing good and being just to those who have neither fought you over your faith nor evicted you from your homes…” (Quran 60:8)

The scholars of the Quran have concluded that these rulings apply to all nations, followers of all faiths, as a matter of fact to all humanity.  In the view of the Quran, justice is an obligation.  That is why the Prophet was told:

“…If you judge, judge between them with justice…” (Quran 5:42)

“We have revealed to you the scripture with the truth that you may judge between people by what God has taught you.” (Quran 4:105)

Furthermore, the Prophet was sent as a judge between peoples, and told:

“…Say: I believe in the Scripture, which God has sent down, and I am commanded to judge justly between you…” (Quran 42:15)

The Quran views itself as a scripture devoted mainly to laying down the principles of faith and justice.  The Quran demands that justice be met for all, and that it is an inherent right of all human beings under Islamic Law. The timeless commitment of the Quran to the basic standards of justice is found in its declaration:

“And the Word of your Lord has been fulfilled in truth and in justice. None can change His Words.” (Quran 6:115)

To render justice is a trust that God has conferred on the human being and, like all other trusts, its fulfillment must be guided by a sense of responsibility beyond mere conformity to set rules.  Thus, the Quran states:

“God commands you to render trusts to whom they are due, and when you judge between people, judge with justice…” (Quran 4:58)

The reference to justice which immediately follows a reference to fulfillment of  trusts indicates that it is one of the most important of all trusts.

Justice and the Self

The Quranic concept of justice also extends justice to being a personal virtue, and one of the standards of moral excellence that a believer is encouraged to attain as part of his God-consciousness.  God says:

“…Be just, for it is closest to God-consciousness…” (Quran 5:8)

The Prophet himself instructed:

“Be conscious of God and be just to your children.”

The Quran tells the believers:

“…When you speak, speak with justice, even if it is against someone close to you…” (Quran 6:152)

Specific Examples of Justice Encouraged in the Quran

The Quran also refers to particular instances and contexts of justice.  One such instance is the requirement of just treatment of orphans.  God says:

“And approach not the property of the orphan except in the fairest way, until he [or she] attains the age of full strength, and give measurement and weight with justice…” (Quran 6:152, also see 89:17, 93:9, and 107:2)

Fair dealings in measurements and weights, as mentioned in the above verse, is also mentioned in other passages where justice in the buying, selling, and by extension, to business transactions in general, is emphasized.  There is an entire chapter of the Quran, Surah al-Mutaffifeen (‘The Detractors in Giving Weights,’ 83) where fraudulent dealers are threatened with divine wrath.

References to justice also occur in the context to polygamy.  The Quran demands equitable treatment of all wives.  The verse of polygamy begins by reference to orphaned girls who may be exposed to depravation and injustice.  When they reach marriageable age, they should be married off, even if it be into a polygamous relationship, especially when there is inequality in the number of men and women, as was the case after the Battle of Uhud when this verse was revealed.  But, as the Quran states:

“If you fear that you can not be just, then marry only one…” (Quran 4:3)

In conclusion, ‘to render justice’, in the words of Sarkhasi, a noted classical Islamic jurist, ‘ranks as the most noble of acts of devotion next to belief in God.  It is the greatest of all the duties entrusted to the prophets…and it is the strongest justification for man’s stewardship of earth.’


Footnotes:

Qaradawi, Yusuf, ‘Madkhal li-Darasah al-Sharia al-Islamiyya,’ p. 177

Kamali, Mohammad, ‘Freedom, Equality, And Justice In Islam,’ p. 111

Qutb, Sayyid, ‘Fi Zilal al-Quran,’ vol 2, p. 689

Razi, Fakhr al-Din, ‘al-Tafsir al-Kabir,’ vol 3, p. 353

Riyad us-Saliheen

Sarkhasi, Shams al-Din, ‘al-Mabsut,’ vol. 14, p. 59-60

(thedeenshow.com / 09.04.2011)

Bijeenkomst

Op zondag 10 april 2011 om 15.00 uur wordt op de Dam een bijeenkomst gehouden voor de Iraniër Kambiz Roustayi die zichzelf woensdag op deze plek in brand gestoken en een dag later overleed aan zijn verwondingen. Zijn herhaalde asielaanvraag was onlangs afgewezen. Deze wanhoopsdaad legt het onmenselijke asielbeleid van Nederland en fascistische en verschrikkelijke daden van Iraanse regime , Iraniërs ontsnappen uit de hel van Iraanse regime en dit is hun gedwongen migratie. .
Iranian Cultural Association in the Netherlands
www.iraniancultural.com
Mobile 0031 6 81 12 74 52
info@iraniancultural

M.O./ Ancora morti a Gaza, decretato stato di emergenza

Sale a 17 numero vittime dell’escalation da giovedì

M.O./ Ancora morti a Gaza, decretato stato di emergenza
Gaza, 9 apr. (TMNews) – Il confronto fra Israele e Hamas, il più sanguinoso dalla guerra dell’inverno 2008-2009 nella Striscia di Gaza, è proseguito anche oggi con una trentina di proiettili di mortaio sparati dai palestinesi e dei raid israeliani. Un palestinese, membro delle Brigate Ezzedin Al Qassam, il braccio armato di Hamas, è stato ucciso da un colpo di mortaio questa mattina a est di Gaza City, secondo fonti sanitarie palestinesi. Secondo fonti sanitarie, altri due palestinesi sono stati uccisi e un altro è rimasto gravemente ferito nella notte tra ieri e oggi durante un raid israeliano a Rafah, nel sud della striscia di Gaza.

Queste nuove vittime portano ad almeno 17 il numero dei palestinesi uccisi dall’inizio di questa prova di forza fra le due parti innescata giovedì da un missile anticarro palestinese che ha ferito gravemente un ragazzo israeliano. Si tratta del bilancio più pesante nell’enclave palestinese dalla fine dell’offensiva “Piombo fuso” nel gennaio 2009.

Una trentina di proiettili di mortaio sparati da Gaza hanno colpito questa mattina il sud di Israele, senza provocare né vittime né danni, ha annunciato la radio militare israeliana. Una ventina di colpi sono esplosi nel sud dello Stato ebraico, mentre una decina di razzi modello Grad, che hanno una gittata di 50 chilometri, hanno raggiunto i dintorni delle città di Ashdod, Beersheba, Kyriat Gat, e Ofakim, ha precisato la radio. Un portavoce dello Tsahal ha parlato di “più di 70 proiettili lanciati verso Israele” nelle ultime 48 ore, precisando che sette razzi Grad sono stati intercettati dal nuovo sistema di difesa antimissile israeliano “Iron Dome” (Cupola di ferro).

Le Brigate Ezzedin al Qassam, come pure le Brigate al Quds, il braccio militare della Jihad islamica, gruppo radicale palestinese alleato di Hamas, hanno rivendicato gli attacchi al mortaio di oggi. Secondo la radio israeliana, la maggior parte dei 700mila abitanti del sud di Israele hanno trascorso la notte di ieri in dei rifugi o in delle stanze “protette” delle loro abitazioni, concepite per resistere a esplosioni.

“Abbiamo assestato dei duri colpi ad Hamas e continueremo a farlo”, ha promesso alla radio il ministro dell’Istruzione israeliano, Gideon Saar, membro del gabinetto di sicurezza. A Gaza, il governo di Hamas ha decretato lo “stato di emergenza”, mobilitando i servizi di sicurezza 24 ore su 24 a seguito dell’escalation di scontri con l’esercito israeliano. “I gruppi palestinesi di Gaza si erano impegnati a rispettare la tregua e a far cessare i lanci di razzi ma l’aggressore sionista ha fatto fallire tutto attaccando e uccidendo civili, donne, bambini e anziani”, ha affermato un portavoce del ministero dell’Interno di Hamas, accusando Tsahal di prendere di mira i soccorritori e le ambulanze e di aver sparato dei “proiettili al fosforo” il cui utilizzo è vietato dal diritto internazionale.

Giovedì sera, Hamas aveva annunciato di aver ottenuto l’accordo della maggior parte dei principali movimenti palestinesi per una tregua, a condizione che fosse reciproca. Il capo del governo di Hamas a Gaza, Ismail Haniyeh, aveva dichiarato di voler evitare una riedizione dell’operazione israeliana “Piombo fuso” che nel gennaio 2009 era costata la vita a 1.440 palestinesi e a 13 israeliani.

(www.tmnews.it / 09.04.2011)

19 dead, 60 injured, 12 in critical state

Gaza, April 9, Israeli continues their brutal assaults in Gaza giving us a vivid taste of Gaza war 2008-2009. Three days of constant bombing, shelling & targeting with missiles on numerous locations in Gaza.

Last night Israeli shells fell on a populated area near shuhada cemetery and hitteen school, it was a real massacre, many reported injuries and 2 martyrs fell from which one of them is a child named Wael Al Jaru which arrived the hospital in pieces, as for the second martyr he remained unidentified because he arrived to the hospital a body with no head.

Israeli missiles also targeted 2 civilian cars, populated areas like Shawwa sq., populated street behind an UNRWA school, heavy shelling on Al zaytoon area, raids on Shyja’eya and also Jabaliya.

Today morning, Ahmed Al Zaytoona, 30, fell as a martyr, he belongs to Al Qassam Brigades, armed-wing of Hamas movement.

Total account of martyrs is 19 in 3 days from which some of them are children, 60 got injured from which 12 are critical, among the injured are women; children, medics and old men.

Basem Na’eem, Minister of health, held a press conference today saying that Gaza is heading into a human catastrophe if the Israeli brutal attacks continue.

Israeli attacks and explosions are happening till now, warplanes of all kinds are still raping Gaza sky.

I will post a report with the names of all martyrs and more info on the injured once this inhuman Israeli assaults end.

(gazatimes.blogspot.com / 09.04.2011)

A list of UN Resolutions against “Israel”

Here is a list of UN resolutions that Israel has not complied. As far as I know they have ignored every single resolution. But the situation is far worse than would at first appear, it involves the serious distortion of the official Security Council record by the profligate use by the United States of its veto power. (See Table)

Israel’s defiance goes back to its very beginnings. This collection of resolutions criticizing Israel is unmatched by the record of any other nation.

  • 1955-1992:
  • * Resolution 106: ” . . . ‘condemns’ Israel for Gaza raid”.
  • * Resolution 111: ” . . . ‘condemns’ Israel for raid on Syria that killed fifty-six people”.
  • * Resolution 127: ” . . . ‘recommends’ Israel suspends it’s ‘no-man’s zone’ in Jerusalem”.
  • * Resolution 162: ” . . . ‘urges’ Israel to comply with UN decisions”.
  • * Resolution 171: ” . . . determines flagrant violations’ by Israel in its attack on Syria”.
  • * Resolution 228: ” . . . ‘censures’ Israel for its attack on Samu in the West Bank, then under Jordanian control”.
  • * Resolution 237: ” . . . ‘urges’ Israel to allow return of new 1967 Palestinian refugees”.
  • * Resolution 248: ” . . . ‘condemns’ Israel for its massive attack on Karameh in Jordan”.
  • * Resolution 250: ” . . . ‘calls’ on Israel to refrain from holding military parade in Jerusalem”.
  • * Resolution 251: ” . . . ‘deeply deplores’ Israeli military parade in Jerusalem in defiance of Resolution 250″.
  • * Resolution 252: ” . . . ‘declares invalid’ Israel’s acts to unify Jerusalem as Jewish capital”.
  • * Resolution 256: ” . . . ‘condemns’ Israeli raids on Jordan as ‘flagrant violation”.
  • * Resolution 259: ” . . . ‘deplores’ Israel’s refusal to accept UN mission to probe occupation”.
  • * Resolution 262: ” . . . ‘condemns’ Israel for attack on Beirut airport”.
  • * Resolution 265: ” . . . ‘condemns’ Israel for air attacks for Salt in Jordan”.
  • * Resolution 267: ” . . . ‘censures’ Israel for administrative acts to change the status of Jerusalem”.
  • *Resolution 270: ” . . . ‘condemns’ Israel for air attacks on villages in southern Lebanon”.
  • * Resolution 271: ” . . . ‘condemns’ Israel’s failure to obey UN resolutions on Jerusalem”.
  • * Resolution 279: ” . . . ‘demands’ withdrawal of Israeli forces from Lebanon”.
  • * Resolution 280: ” . . . ‘condemns’ Israeli’s attacks against Lebanon”.
  • * Resolution 285: ” . . . ‘demands’ immediate Israeli withdrawal form Lebanon”.
  • * Resolution 298: ” . . . ‘deplores’ Israel’s changing of the status of Jerusalem”.
  • * Resolution 313: ” . . . ‘demands’ that Israel stop attacks against Lebanon”.
  • * Resolution 316: ” . . . ‘condemns’ Israel for repeated attacks on Lebanon”.
  • * Resolution 317: ” . . . ‘deplores’ Israel’s refusal to release Arabs abducted in Lebanon”.
  • * Resolution 332: ” . . . ‘condemns’ Israel’s repeated attacks against Lebanon”.
  • * Resolution 337: ” . . . ‘condemns’ Israel for violating Lebanon’s sovereignty”.
  • * Resolution 347: ” . . . ‘condemns’ Israeli attacks on Lebanon”.
  • * Resolution 425: ” . . . ‘calls’ on Israel to withdraw its forces from Lebanon”.
  • * Resolution 427: ” . . . ‘calls’ on Israel to complete its withdrawal from Lebanon.
  • * Resolution 444: ” . . . ‘deplores’ Israel’s lack of cooperation with UN peacekeeping forces”.
  • * Resolution 446: ” . . . ‘determines’ that Israeli settlements are a ‘serious
  • obstruction’ to peace and calls on Israel to abide by the Fourth Geneva Convention”.
  • * Resolution 450: ” . . . ‘calls’ on Israel to stop attacking Lebanon”.
  • * Resolution 452: ” . . . ‘calls’ on Israel to cease building settlements in occupied territories”.
  • * Resolution 465: ” . . . ‘deplores’ Israel’s settlements and asks all member
  • states not to assist Israel’s settlements program”.
  • * Resolution 467: ” . . . ‘strongly deplores’ Israel’s military intervention in Lebanon”.
  • * Resolution 468: ” . . . ‘calls’ on Israel to rescind illegal expulsions of
  • two Palestinian mayors and a judge and to facilitate their return”.
  • * Resolution 469: ” . . . ‘strongly deplores’ Israel’s failure to observe the
  • council’s order not to deport Palestinians”.
  • * Resolution 471: ” . . . ‘expresses deep concern’ at Israel’s failure to abide
  • by the Fourth Geneva Convention”.
  • * Resolution 476: ” . . . ‘reiterates’ that Israel’s claim to Jerusalem are ‘null and void'”.
  • * Resolution 478: ” . . . ‘censures (Israel) in the strongest terms’ for its
  • claim to Jerusalem in its ‘Basic Law'”.
  • * Resolution 484: ” . . . ‘declares it imperative’ that Israel re-admit two deported
  • Palestinian mayors”.
  • * Resolution 487: ” . . . ‘strongly condemns’ Israel for its attack on Iraq’s
  • nuclear facility”.
  • * Resolution 497: ” . . . ‘decides’ that Israel’s annexation of Syria’s Golan
  • Heights is ‘null and void’ and demands that Israel rescinds its decision forthwith”.
  • * Resolution 498: ” . . . ‘calls’ on Israel to withdraw from Lebanon”.
  • * Resolution 501: ” . . . ‘calls’ on Israel to stop attacks against Lebanon and withdraw its troops”.
  • * Resolution 509: ” . . . ‘demands’ that Israel withdraw its forces forthwith and unconditionally from Lebanon”.
  • * Resolution 515: ” . . . ‘demands’ that Israel lift its siege of Beirut and
  • allow food supplies to be brought in”.
  • * Resolution 517: ” . . . ‘censures’ Israel for failing to obey UN resolutions
  • and demands that Israel withdraw its forces from Lebanon”.
  • * Resolution 518: ” . . . ‘demands’ that Israel cooperate fully with UN forces in Lebanon”.
  • * Resolution 520: ” . . . ‘condemns’ Israel’s attack into West Beirut”.
  • * Resolution 573: ” . . . ‘condemns’ Israel ‘vigorously’ for bombing Tunisia
  • in attack on PLO headquarters.
  • * Resolution 587: ” . . . ‘takes note’ of previous calls on Israel to withdraw
  • its forces from Lebanon and urges all parties to withdraw”.
  • * Resolution 592: ” . . . ‘strongly deplores’ the killing of Palestinian students
  • at Bir Zeit University by Israeli troops”.
  • * Resolution 605: ” . . . ‘strongly deplores’ Israel’s policies and practices
  • denying the human rights of Palestinians.
  • * Resolution 607: ” . . . ‘calls’ on Israel not to deport Palestinians and strongly
  • requests it to abide by the Fourth Geneva Convention.
  • * Resolution 608: ” . . . ‘deeply regrets’ that Israel has defied the United Nations and deported Palestinian civilians”.
  • * Resolution 636: ” . . . ‘deeply regrets’ Israeli deportation of Palestinian civilians.
  • * Resolution 641: ” . . . ‘deplores’ Israel’s continuing deportation of Palestinians.
  • * Resolution 672: ” . . . ‘condemns’ Israel for violence against Palestinians
  • at the Haram al-Sharif/Temple Mount.
  • * Resolution 673: ” . . . ‘deplores’ Israel’s refusal to cooperate with the United
  • Nations.
  • * Resolution 681: ” . . . ‘deplores’ Israel’s resumption of the deportation of
  • Palestinians.
  • * Resolution 694: ” . . . ‘deplores’ Israel’s deportation of Palestinians and
  • calls on it to ensure their safe and immediate return.
  • * Resolution 726: ” . . . ‘strongly condemns’ Israel’s deportation of Palestinians.
  • * Resolution 799: “. . . ‘strongly condemns’ Israel’s deportation of 413 Palestinians
  • and calls for there immediate return.

1993 to 1995UNGA Res 50/21 – The Middle East Peace Process (Dec 12, 1995)

UNGA Res 50/22 – The Situation in the Middle East (Dec 12, 1995)

UNGA Res 49/35 – Assistance to Palestinian Refugees (Jan 30 1995) l

UNGA Res 49/36 – Human Rights of Palestinian Refugees (Jan 30 1995)

UNGA Res 49/62 – Question of Palestine (Feb 3 1995)

UNGA Res 49/78 – Nuclear Proliferation in Mideast (Jan 11 1995)

UNGA Res 49/87 – Situation in the Middle East (Feb 7 1995)

UNGA Res 49/88 – The Middle East Peace Process (Feb 7 1995)

UNGA Res 49/149- Palestinian Right- Self-Determination (Feb 7 1995)

UNGA Res 48/213 – Assistance to Palestinian Refugees (Mar 15, 1994)

UNGA Res 48/40 – UNRWA for Palestinian Refugees (Dec 13, 1993)

UNGA Res 48/41 – Human Rights in the Territories (Dec 10 1993)

UNGA Res 48/58 – The Middle East Peace Process (Dec 14 1993)

UNGA Res 48/59 – The Situation in the Middle East (Dec 14 1993)

UNGA Res 48/71 – Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Mideast (Dec 16 1993)

UNGA Res 48/78 – Israeli Nuclear Armanent (Dec 16 1993)

UNGA Res 48/94 – Self-Determination & Independence (Dec 20 1993)

UNGA Res 48/124- Non-interference in Elections (Dec 20 1993)

UNGA Res 48/158- Question of Palestine (Dec 20 1993)

UNGA Res 48/212- Repercussions of Israeli Settlements (Dec 21 1993)

==========+++===========

U.S. Vetoes of UN Resolutions Critical of Israel

(1972-2002)


Vetoes: 1972-1982

Subject Date & Meeting US Rep Casting  Veto Vote
Palestine: Syrian-Lebanese Complaint. 3 power draft resolution 2/10784 9/10/1972 Bush 13-1, 1
Palestine: Examination of Middle East Situation. 8-power draft resolution (S/10974) 7/2/1973 Scali 13-1, 0 (China not partic.)
Palestine: Egyptian-Lebanese Complaint. 5-power draft power resolution (S/11898) 12/8/1975 Moynihan 13-1, 1
Palestine: Middle East Problem, including Palestinian question. 6-power draft resolution (S/11940) 1/26/1976 Moynihan 9-1,3 (China & Libya not partic.)
Palestine: Situation in Occupied Arab Territories. 5-power draft resolution (S/12022) 3/25/1976 Scranton 14-1,0
Palestine: Report on Committee on Rights of Palestinian People. 4-power draft resolution (S/121119) 6/29/1976 Sherer 10-1,4
Palestine: Palestinian Rights. Tunisian draft resolution. (S/13911) 4/30/1980 McHenry 10-1,4
Palestine: Golan Heights. Jordan draft resolution. (S/14832/Rev. 2) 1/20/1982 Kirkpatrick 9-1,5
Palestine: Situation in Occupied Territories, Jordan draft resolution (S/14943) 4/2/1982 Lichenstein 13-1,1
Palestine: Incident at the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. 4-power draft resolution 4/20/1982 Kirpatrick 14-1, 0
Palestine: Conflict in Lebanon. Spain draft resolution. (S/15185) 6/8/1982 Kirpatrick 14-1,0
Palestine: Conflict in Lebanon. France draft resolution. (S/15255/Rev. 2) 6/26/1982 Lichenstein 14-1
Palestine: Conflict in Lebanon. USSR draft resolution. (S/15347/Rev. 1, as orally amended) 8/6/1982 Lichenstein 11-1,3
Palestine: Situation in Occupied Territories, 20-power draft resolution (S/15895) 8/2/1983 Lichenstein 13-1,1

 

Security Council Vetoes/Negative voting 1983-present

Subject Date Vote
Occupied Arab Territories: Wholesale condemnation of Israeli settlement policies – not adopted 1983
S. Lebanon: Condemns Israeli action in southern Lebanon. S/16732 9/6/1984 Vetoed: 13-1 (U.S.), with 1 abstention (UK)
Occupied Territories: Deplores “repressive measures” by Israel against Arab population. S/19459. 9/13/1985 Vetoed: 10-1 (U.S.), with 4 abstentions (Australia, Denmark, UK, France)
Lebanon: Condemns Israeli practices against civilians in southern Lebanon. S/17000. 3/12/1985 Vetoed: 11-1 (U.S.), with 3 abstentions (Australia, Denmark, UK)
Occupied Territories: Calls upon Israel to respect Muslim holy places. S/17769/Rev. 1 1/30/1986  Vetoed: 13-1 (US), with one abstention (Thailand)
Lebanon: Condemns Israeli practices against civilians in southern Lebanon. S/17730/Rev. 2. 1/17/1986 Vetoed: 11-1 (U.S.), with 3 abstentions (Australia, Denmark, UK)
Libya/Israel: Condemns Israeli interception of Libyan plane. S/17796/Rev. 1. 2/6/1986 Vetoed: 10 -1 (US), with 4 abstentions (Australia, Denmark, France, UK)
Lebanon: Draft strongly deplored repeated Israeli attacks against Lebanese territory and other measures and practices against the civilian population; (S/19434) 1/18/1988 vetoed 13-1 (US), with 1 abstention (UK)
Lebanon: Draft condemned recent invasion by Israeli forces of Southern Lebanon and repeated a call for the immediate withdrawal of all Israeli forces from Lebanese territory;  (S/19868) 5/10/1988 vetoed 14-1 (US)
Lebanon: Draft strongly deplored the recent Israeli attack against Lebanese territory on 9 December 1988; (S/20322) 12/14/1988 vetoed 14-1 (US)
Occupied territories: Draft called on Israel to accept de jure applicability of the 4th Geneva Convention;  (S/19466) 1988 vetoed 14-1 (US)
Occupied territories: Draft urged Israel to abide by the Fourth Geneva Convention, rescind the order to deport Palestinian civilians, and condemned policies and practices of Israel that violate the human rights of the Palestinian people in the occupied territories;  (S/19780) 1988 vetoed 14-1 (US)
Occupied territories: Strongly deplored Israeli policies and practices in the occupied territories, and strongly deplored also Israel’s continued disregard of relevant Security Council decisions. 2/17/1989 Vetoed 14-1 (US)
Occupied territories: Condemned Israeli policies and practices in the occupied territories. 6/9/1989 Vetoed 14-1 (US)
Occupied territories: Deplored Israel’s policies and practices in the occupied territories. 11/7/1989 Vetoed 14-1 (US)
Occupied territories: NAM draft resolution to create a commission and send three security council members to Rishon Lezion, where an Israeli gunmen shot down seven Palestinian workers. 5/31/1990 Vetoed 14-1 (US)
Middle East: Confirms that the expropriation of land by Israel in East Jerusalem is invalid and in violation of relevant Security Council resolutions and provisions of the Fourth Geneva convention; expresses support of peace process, including the Declaration of Principles of 9/13/1993 5/17/1995 Vetoed 14-1 (US)
Middle East: Calls upon Israeli authorities to refrain from all actions or measures, including settlement activities. 3/7/1997 Vetoed 14-1 (US)
Middle East: Demands that Israel cease construction of the settlement in east Jerusalem (called Jabal Abu Ghneim by the Palestinians and Har Homa by Israel), as well as all the other Israeli settlement activity in the occupied territories 3/21/1997 Vetoed 13-1,1 (US)
Call for UN Observers Force in West Bank, Gaza 3/27/2001 Vetoed 9-1 (US),
with four abstentions
(Britain, France, Ireland and Norway)
Condemned acts of terror, demanded an end to violence and the establishment of a monitoring mechanism to bring in observers. 12/15/2001 Vetoed 12-1 (US)
with two abstentions (Britain and Norway)

 


Source: U.S. State Department

(www.wake-up-america.net / 09.04.2011)

The 9th of April in Gaza

1:06am local time. F16 bombed a car in Rafah. 3 Palestinians injured. It’s a massacre.
01:26 In the past 24 hours Palestinian deaths amounted to 18, among them 2 children and 2 women. Around 80 peo…ple injured, mostly are civilians. Hundres of Palestininasn evacuated their homes near the border.
1.33am Loud bombing near the port caused by F16 for sure
1:35am. Palestinian guerrilla fired a rocket towards Israel. Two people injured 2.05am: 3 Israeli people injured by a Grad rocket fired from the Gaza Strip. One israeli was declared clinically dead. Israel keeps on bombing the Strip. Khan Younis shaking under bombs.

Vittorio Arrigoni LAST UPDATES FROM GAZA

09/04/2011 14:40:06 Abbas asks Arab League for urgent meeting
09/04/2011 13:29:47 Report: 2 Egyptians dead in Tahrir Square
09/04/2011 13:29:20 Awarta chief: 50 men remain in detention after round ups
09/04/2011 12:29:35 Haniyeh tells Friday worshipers that Israel must stop aggression
09/04/2011 12:28:32 Ashton calls for restraint in Gaza
09/04/2011 12:28:13 Abbas: We would respect the outcome of any election
09/04/2011 10:33:18 Early morning air strike on Gaza kills Al-Qassam fighter
09/04/2011 10:32:58 Settlers torch Palestinian car near Nablus
09/04/2011 10:32:33 Overnight strikes hit four targets in Gaza, kill 2
09/04/2011 10:32:05 3 killed in Nablus bakery, police say suspicious circumstances
09/04/2011 10:31:22 Palestinians mark 63 years since Deir Yassin massacre

(Cinzia Baldessari  / 09.04.2011)

Medical shortage in Gaza arise as Israel continues to attack heavily.

Gaza Victims: A bride was killed days before her wedding in the Gaza Strip.

Israeli Army spokesman: We will keep on attacking and bombing Gaza.

Breaking News: Israeli rockets hit northern Gaza Strip now.

Israeli air force in full practice over Gaza Strip

Emergency Meeting for Arab league to discuss Israeli war crimes against civilians in occupied Gaza Strip

Shimon Peres: Egypt change is good for Israel; Egyptians respond burning Israeli flag

Settlers assault villagers in WB

One Palestinian Killed and seriously another injured in Israeli shelling in the #Gaza Strip

Hamas Press conf. says Palestinian resistance won’t sit and watch Israel’s attacks – self defence will continue.

Settlers deny Salfit farmers access to their fields

Israel Resumes Strikes Into Saturday Morning

(Sameh_Habeeb Palestine Telegraph / 09.04.2011)

Palestinian factions condemn Israeli escalation on Gaza

Gaza Strip, (Pal Telegraph)-All Palestinian factions denounced yesterday Israeli violations and escalation against residents of Gaza Strip that killed 17 Palestinians and injured more than 60 urging the international community to provide immediate protection for innocent citizens.

Fatah movement condemned Israeli military offensive on Gaza Strip as Israel continues targeting Palestinians in the besieged strip.

Adding  that the terrible situation in Gaza is similar to the situation in the occupied West Bank as Israeli forces carry out daily attacks including demolition, confiscation,  and detention operations that apparently obstacle peace process in the area.

Fatah movement demanded also national unity and insisted the removal of Israeli occupation in order to prevent further bloodshed.

The Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine held Israeli authorities the whole responsibility to the aggression occurred despite ceasefire that was declared following meetings with Palestinian factions in Gaza .

Pointing out that Israeli escalation especially to what happened in the past week violated the international humanitarian law and prevented Palestinian efforts from achieving national unity.

The movement condemned Israeli ongoing aggression on the besieged Strip urging respect for the international humanitarian law .

Hamas Movement also claimed Israel the responsibility for the brutal attacks carried out since Thursday in retaliation to the homemade rocket attacks fired from Gaza by its militants.

Hamas movement said that Palestinian fighters fired at Israel following the assassination of three Palestinians in Khan Younis city by Israeli air forces.

(networkedblogs.com / 09.04.2011)

Salami-politiek

Zo rukt de PVV op

De PVV heeft een nieuwe methode gevonden om een hoofddoekjesverbod door te drukken. Na mislukte pogingen om er een belasting voor door te voeren of een verbod er op in het openbaar vervoer in te stellen is er dan nu een middel gevonden: de verblijfsvergunning.

Die conclusie dringt zich op bij de berichtgeving rond Sahar. Gedoogpartner PVV wilde de uitzetting van de 14-jarige Sahar doorzetten maar gaf toe aan het gebaar van Leers dat ze mocht blijven, op voorwaarde dat voor andere meisjes de normen worden opgeschroefd. Teletekst schrijft: “De partij hecht eraan dat per meisje wordt bekeken in hoeverre ze verwesterd is en of ze in Afghanistan veilig is.” Want dat was het argument om Sahar hier te houden, ze loopt in Afghanistan levensgevaar omdat ze als Nederlands meisje is opgegroeid.

De PVV gaat dus onderzoeken of een meisje wel voldoende ‘verwesterd’ is. Zo niet, dan wordt ze alsnog uitgeleverd aan de Taliban. Om de dreiging wat kracht bij te zetten eist de PVV in ruil voor het mogen blijven van Sahar dat het aantal uitzettingen wordt opgeschroefd. Leers zei dat er naar schatting vierhonderd meisjes als Sahar in Nederland zijn. De PVV zegt dat de clementie voor hooguit tientallen mag gelden.

Wat denk je, als Sahar uit vrije wil een hoofddoekje had gedragen, had ze dan kans gemaakt op PVV-clementie? Dacht het niet. De vrije wil, dat is bij uitstek een Westers begrip. Maar als je het als moslim toepast ben je de pineut.

Dus rest de meisjes die op het vliegtuig richting Taliban dreigen te worden gezet geen andere keus dan als een bezetene te gaan ‘verwesteren’. Dat past precies in een ander programmapunt van de PVV: De verplichte assimilatie. De PVV heeft immers niets met vrijheid maar alles met dwang.

De coalitiepartners denken dat ze de PVV gaandeweg de wind uit de zeilen nemen, optimisten riepen na het Sahar-besluit al enthousiast dat de PVV nu toch overstag was. Vergeet het maar. De PVV past salami-politiek toe. Hun programma is net als die kruidige worst te scherp om in een keer overgenomen te worden. Dus snijden ze hun plannen in dunne plakjes die ze voeren aan de coalitie en de rest van Nederland. Tot de hele worst is geconsumeerd.

(www.joop.nl / 09.04.2011)

Right of return: Palestinian dream

Thursday, 15 April 2004, news.bbc.co.uk   (09.04.2011)

US President George W Bush’s comments on Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon’s Gaza withdrawal plan included tough words on one of the thorniest issues in the Middle East conflict – Palestinian refugees.

The fate of the estimated four million Palestinians living in refugee communities scattered around the Middle East is highly controversial.

Hundreds of thousands of Palestinians fled or were displaced from their homes during the Israeli-Arab wars in 1948 and 1967.

They and their descendents live, many crammed into overcrowded enclaves, mainly in the West Bank, Gaza Strip, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon.

The Palestinians have long asserted that the refugees have a moral and legal right to return to what was once Palestine – including land which is now Israel.

Refugees wishing to return to their homes and live at peace with their neighbours should be permitted to do so at the earliest practical date
UNGA resolution 194

Some of the refugees still retain old deeds and keys to homes now occupied by Israelis.

But for Israel, granting the right of return would be tantamount to surrendering the country’s identity.

With a population of 6.6m, of which 5.4m are Jewish, opening the door to a potential 4 million returnees would threaten the demographic balance – and thus the very nature – of the world’s only Jewish state.

Legal debate

In his statement, Mr Bush said that once a Palestinian state is created it should provide space for the Palestinian returnees:

“A solution to the Palestinian refugee issue as part of any final status agreement will need to be found through the establishment of a Palestinian state and the settling of Palestinian refugees there, rather than in Israel,” he said.

A Palestinian refugee forced to buy rotten lemons in Ain al-Hilweh camp in Lebanon 

Life Lebanon’s overcrowded camps offers few pleasures

But to many Palestinians, the right to return is an inalienable basic human right to each individual refugee, and is therefore not for Palestinian negotiators – or anyone else – to bargain with.

The Palestinians base their claim to the right to return on United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) resolution 194, which was passed in 1948.

It states that Palestinian “refugees wishing to return to their homes and live at peace with their neighbours should be permitted to do so at the earliest practical date”.

Further UNGA resolutions have since been passed, and arguments are also drawn from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Opponents point out, however, that UNGA resolutions are not binding in the way that UN Security Resolutions are.

They also question whether the language used in resolution 194 amounts to a “right” to return, and raise their own human rights fears that returnees would be hostile to Israel.

Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat 

Arafat says Palestinians will never give up the right of return

There is also debate over the number of refugees who initially left in 1948, and whether it was Arabs or Jews who caused them to go.

In 1951, Unrwa, the UN agency established to care for the welfare of the Palestinian refugees, established a list of 860,000 people who were considered to have lost homes and livelihoods in Palestine.

After the outbreak of the 1967 Arab-Israeli war, another wave of Palestinians were displaced.

As Israel expanded its territory, an estimated 300,000 Palestinians left the West Bank and Gaza, most of them to settle in Jordan.

Final status issue

The Israelis have long called for the refugees to be absorbed into their Arab host countries, arguing that that is what Israel did with large numbers of Sephardic Jews expelled from Arab lands after 1948.

But most the Arab nations have refused, wishing neither to capitulate to Israeli demands nor to upset the demographic balances of their own populations.

Children in Ain al-Hilweh camp in Lebanon 

The burgeoning Palestinian refugee population lives mostly in poverty

Jordan has granted temporary national passports to Palestinians, but in Lebanon they are denied access to education and health services, while they are subject to strict political control in Syria.

The intractable problem has been considered a “final status” question in Israeli-Palestinian peace talks, left until last along with other thorny issues such as the status of Jerusalem.

There was talk of a “broken taboo” when it was discussed at the Camp David talks between Yasser Arafat and then Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak in 2000.

Although the talks collapsed, Mr Barak for the first time allowed a small number of Palestinians back into Israel for “family reunifications”.

Pragmatic proposals

While the Palestinian Authority and Palestinian militant groups maintain that the right of return is non-negotiable, some prominent Palestinians have taken a more pragmatic attitude in recent years.

In 2002, Sari Nusseibeh, an academic and former representative of the PLO in Jerusalem controversially proposed a settlement where Palestinian refugees would only be able to return to a Palestinian state.

Also, the unofficial “Geneva Accord” peace framework, proposed by former Israeli minister Yossi Beilin and former Palestinian Information Minister Yasser Abed Rabbo in 2003, relinquished the full right of return.

It would have allowed Israel to determine the number of Palestinians who would be allowed back into Israel as part of a deal securing the creation of a Palestinian state.

Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat has declared in response to Mr Bush’s statement that Palestinians will never give up the right of refugees to return to their homeland.

He has also previously said that the right of return should be implemented in a way which takes into account Israeli demographic concerns.

How this could ever be possible – and how many refugees would actually return to Israel given the chance – remains far from clear.

PALESTINIAN REFUGEE POPULATIONS
map
1. Jordan: 1,718,767
2. Lebanon: 391,679
3. Syria: 409,662
4. West Bank: 654,971
5. Gaza: 907,221

‘Israel acting like mad dog cornered’

No mercy on the civilian population of Gaza where entire families have been annihilated by Israeli bombardments on civilian homes.
As Israel tries to cripple the Goldstone report in an attempt to avoid war crime accountability, air attacks on the Gaza Strip have increased dramatically.

Interview with Ken O’Keefe, Human Rights Activist, Gaza.

Ken O’Keefe, a human rights activist in Gaza, talks with Press TV about the possibility of Palestine receiving assistance from its Arab and Muslim neighbors. Ken also weighs in on the US and Israeli agenda to have the Goldstone Report ‘disappear’ and expresses his views regarding the humanity of the Palestinian people while living under occupation.

Press TV: We know that military attacks by Israel against Gazans have been on the increase and Hamas has said that it is now waiting to see what the Arab regimes are going to do in reaction to the situation that is taking place, as more and more attacks take place on the innocent Palestinian people. How likely is that to happen?

We saw in the Israeli onslaught on Gaza (2009) that the Arab regimes basically met the situation with silence. Do you think it’s going to be different this time around?

Ken O’Keefe: It’s a dangerous tactic to take. I have not put a lot of stock in Egypt coming to the rescue; they’ve got their own battles going on internally. And there are still $1.3 billion in bribes being given to the Egyptian military.

We cannot ignore the root of the problem. Whatever Hamas is doing right now — whoever is firing the rockets — this is not the problem; that is a result of the problem. The problem is that we are 40 year plus into this blockade collective punishment policy of which Egypt was collaborating and which still hasn’t completely ended it.
Effectively, when you do that to people, they are going to bite back in the only way they can and in this case it’s the rockets.

I don’t agree with anyone who thinks that the Arab governments at this stage are going to come to the rescue of the Palestinians. I would say, to the contrary, that they are going to be sorely disappointed if they’re waiting for them right now.

Press TV: There would be some that would say basically it’s what came first, the chicken or the egg – who’s attacking whom – How would you answer that?

Ken O’Keefe: To me, there has been a tremendous amount of effort trying to confuse people on this issue; but it’s really quite simple. The beginning of the problem was the dispossession of the land from its people. And from then, it has spiraled and escalated in which the Palestinians have affectively been dealing with an occupier and invader who did not come with goodwill or neighborly respect; who has come and violated the Palestinian people from previous to 1948.

If you do that to any people….If the situation were changed, and it was an invading occupying entity that invaded Sweden, the Swedish people would fight back. If it was done to the American people, there would be blood spilling in the streets — Americans killing Americans in the most brutal ways if those Americans were collaborating with the invader and occupier. So it is obvious to those of us who have paid any attention.

It’s not as if no wrongs have been done on the Palestinian side – there are. However, the victim is not to be blamed for the circumstances to which he is resisting. If I was born and raised in Palestine — if I witnessed family members being murdered on a regular basis — I have no doubt whatsoever that I would be involved in resisting. Only because I’ve come from America am I not engaged in violent resistance. Ultimately though, resistance for the sake of resistance is not the answer – resistance must be for the sake of justice.

Press TV: Today, Susan Rice, US envoy to the UN, said that she wanted a war crimes report in the 2008-2009 Gaza offensive to disappear. In light of everything that’s taking place right now in Gaza, how do you find these comments in general?

Ken O’Keefe: I’ve long since reached the point where any US official of any stature is just not even worth listening to. If anyone takes these people seriously as if they have any agenda other than to serve tyranny then they are living in la la land.

This Susan Rice is a traitor as far as I’m concerned. They all are – Barack Obama and all of the top level Senators. To even deny that a massive war crime was committed in Zeitoon where friends of mine, the Sulooni family lives, is beyond debate – a massive war crime was committed there. We could talk about the Araja family that had a white phosphorus bomb explode into their home; six family members killed – one of them, a baby, was burnt to a crisp instantly. That is a massive war crime.
To even entertain the idea, that because Goldstone is threatened or bribed or simply doesn’t have the backbone to stand by his words – to entertain the idea that Susan Rice has any legitimacy — is ridiculous. She has none, absolutely none.

Ultimately, I don’t blame governments anymore; I blame us as people that we allow this type of thing to continue. We are allowing the Susan Rices and the Barak Obamas and the Tony Blairs and the David Camerons and all of these jokers to actually say this stuff as if there’s any truth to it. It’s really quite disgusting and it says a lot about us that we even tolerate it.

You’re saying that the people are allowing it, but for example, the family that you talked about saying that their baby was burnt to a crisp – the average American person when they turn on their TV are not seeing these images. Can you understand that a lot of them really don’t have any idea of what is actually taking place in Gaza?
Yes I know this very well because I was a brainwashed indoctrinated American, as well, and I used to say the pledge of allegiance, which ends with ‘liberty and justice for all’. You say that sort of stuff every day and it becomes true even though it has nothing to do with reality.

So I do understand and appreciate the fact that American people are generally good people; however, if you were taken to court for an alleged crime and you said in court that you didn’t know it was a crime, that would be no defense.

And from the American people not knowing that their government is using their tax dollars to commit mass murder — to commit crimes against humanity, to use depleted uranium, cluster bombs and other things — to kill people in extrajudicial assassination and then to claim well I didn’t know, is no defense.

You are guilty. You are paying for the mass murder whether you like it or not and it doesn’t matter whether you didn’t vote for that person or this person; it doesn’t matter.

Before I forget, there is a no fly zone over Libya. Why don’t we have a no fly zone over Palestine? Why not? Because our world is inherently corrupt ad because those that are in charge have no respect, at all, for human life on any level. There must be a no fly zone over Palestine now. All the jets and helicopter gunships flying over Palestine right now should be shot out of the sky. That is where the world should go and I’m sure we can make it so if we really decide to do something.

Press TV: How likely is it that Israel will once again invade Gaza in a full-fledged war? At the start of these Middle East revolutions and uprisings, political experts were warning to keep your eyes on what Israel is doing because as the international community’s attention is looking at these other ME countries, that it is likely that events will take place in Israel.

Ken O’Keefe: We have known about the ‘Samson’ option for some time now. For those not familiar – Israel has made it clear on more than one occasion that it is willing to use the Samson option i.e. to use its nuclear weapons; to target places in Europe and other parts of the world – this has always been a potential threat from Israel.

That must be our motivation to confront Israel because no nation — whether it is Israel or the US or any other nation — can be allowed to try and intimidate the rest of us by fear of them using their weapons.

Israel is like a mad dog being driven into a corner because it is losing. The Zionist project has peaked just like the American empire and it is heading down fast; there is no question of it. All the lies that it was getting away with for decades — incredible lies, perpetuating the notion that it was the victim and the Palestinians were the criminal…That day is now over.

All of these lies that they have lived off for decades are now coming tumbling down and the world is seeing the truth and realizing that they have been duped and that in fact the Palestinian people are the most remarkable people because despite having been through hell for decades and having been abandoned by everyone, including their Arab and Muslim brothers and sisters, they have not lost their humanity; they remain one of the most hospitable and beautiful people that you would ever want to meet. And they will not become the monster that is attacking them.

What is Israel going to do? It is impossible to predict, they could do anything. I do know that they have an incentive to try and create a conflict right now because we have the next freedom flotilla coming and they’re scared to death of that, and there are other things happening also, which aren’t good for Israel such as the possibility for real representative democracy in the Arab world.

This is a nightmare for Israel, so like a mad dog driven into a corner, it’s impossible to predict exactly what it’s going to do; but it will fight back in some way. Options might include exacting war on Gaza again or the Samson option of nuclear detonation in Europe or another part of the world. It’s time to deal with this mad dog and deal with it right now.

(www.presstv.ir /09.04.2011)