Israel soldiers shot Palestinian teen, ‘dragged him around’ and chased away ambulance

Palestinians mourn the death of Palestinian teen, Mahmoud Nakhle, who was shot by Israeli forces and then dragged around on 14 December 2018 [Issam Rimawi/Anadolu Agency]

Palestinians mourn the death of Palestinian teen, Mahmoud Nakhle, who was shot by Israeli forces and then dragged around near Ramallah on 14 December 2018

Israeli soldiers who fatally shot a Palestinian child last week prevented him from receiving potentially life-saving medical treatment, reported Haaretz.

Seventeen-year-old Mahmoud Nakhle was shot on Friday 14 December as Israeli occupation forces suppressed protests around Al-Jalazun refugee camp near Ramallah.

The confrontations between residents and soldiers had already slowed down when Israeli forces “began chasing after the youths” and “suddenly…started shooting, using live ammunition”.

According to the paper, Nakhle was returning home “by way of a dirt path that passes above the camp”, when “the soldiers ran after him and one of them shot him once, in the lower back”.

READ: Israel killed Gaza teens with ‘warning’ missile then published misleading video, investigation reveals

The soldiers lifted Nakhle up and carried him a few dozen metres away, “laying him down at the side of the road”; one eyewitness said they carried him “like you haul a slaughtered sheep”.

After a few minutes, soldiers lifted the boy up again, and “carried him a few dozen metres more”. A Palestinian ambulance “was chased off by the soldiers, who threatened the driver with their rifles”. As far as is known, Haaretz reported, “the soldiers did not give Nakhle any sort of medical aid”.

It was only after a quarter of an hour “that the soldiers allowed an ambulance to be summoned”, but Mahmoud died en route to the hospital.

His death certificate states that the teen “died from loss of blood after a bullet entered his lower back, struck his liver and hit a main artery, damaging other internal organs”.

READ: 2018 one of the bloodiest years for Palestinian children under Israel occupation 

The paper described how “Mahmoud attended school until the 10th grade and then studied electrical engineering at a professional college”. After a year of apprenticeship, he had been “waiting to find a job as an electrician”. He is survived by his parents and two sisters aged 14 and four.

The Israeli military spokesperson told Haaretz “a Palestinian holding a suspicious object approached one of the soldiers” when “the soldier fired at him”. The incident is being investigated by the Military Police, who routinely whitewash the killing of Palestinians by Israeli occupation forces.

(Source / 21.12.2018)

Twitter blocked Hamas, Hezbollah accounts at Israel’s demand

In this photo illustration, The Twitter logo is displayed on the screen of an Apple Inc. iPhone 5 in this arranged photograph on September 25, 2016 in Paris, France (Photo illustration by Chesnot/Getty Images)

In this photo illustration, The Twitter logo is displayed on the screen of an Apple Inc. iPhone 5 in this arranged photograph on September 25, 2016 in Paris, France

Twitter has revealed that it blocked over 20 accounts belonging to Hamas and Hezbollah to meet demands issued by Israel.

In the first half of 2018, the social media giant blocked over 20 accounts belonging to senior figures of Hamas and Hezbollah, including those of Hamas leader Ismail Haniyeh, Hamas spokesman Fawzi Barhoum and Rawhi Mushtaha, a close associate of Hamas’ leader in Gaza Yahya Al-Sinwar.

Twitter’s decision came after it received a letter from the Cybercrime Department of Israel’s Ministry of Justice on 26 June demanding that it “permanently close” the accounts in question. The letter – published by the Times of Israel yesterday – cited Article 24 of Israel’s Counterterror Law which “states that any act of solidarity with a terror organisation, including any publication of support in its actions, is an offense punishable by three or five years’ imprisonment”.

“We would like to point out that Article 23 [of] that law states that facilitating or aiding terror organisations is also an offence,” the letter continued, before going on to provide a two-page list of the accounts Israel wanted to be blocked.

According to the Times of Israel, “13 of the accounts belonging to senior Hamas officials have [since] gone blank, save for a statement saying that the account ‘has been withheld in Israel in response to a legal demand’”. It also seems that Hamas – which governs the besieged Gaza Strip – was disproportionately targeted by the request, with Naim Qassem, the second-in-command of Hezbollah, being the only official belonging to the Lebanese group to appear on the list.

READ: Gaza’s Al-Aqsa TV to go off air after Israel bombing

This is not the only time Twitter has bowed to Israeli pressure to restrict content and accounts. Earlier this month it emerged that Twitter has been enforcing Israel’s gag order on details of its botched operation in Gaza, instructing a number of media outlets to remove posts revealing the identity of Israel’s undercover operatives. The Electronic Intifada (EI) disclosed that it had received a message from Twitter instructing it to delete a tweet linking to a story about the operation, despite the fact that, as a US-based organisation, it is not required to comply with the gag order Israel places on its own media.

In June, Israel’s Security Minister Gilad Erdan also wrote a letter to Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey and its executive chairman, Omid Kordestani, telling the company to close Hamas and Hezbollah accounts. Erdan wrote that “giving terrorist organisations the freedom to operate and disseminate messages of incitement through your network is a violation of the Israeli law. If Twitter does not respond to the Israeli demand, it will be subject to legal measures that Israel may take against it”.

It now seems that, given the fact that the Justice Ministry’s letter was sent on 26 June, Erdan’s request formed part of a targeted and coordinated campaign by various departments of the Israeli government to pressure Twitter to comply with its requests. Both Erdan and Ayelet Shaked – the Israeli Justice Minister – have effectively waged war on social media giants, passing the so-called “Facebook Bill” which would authorise Israel’s court to issue orders to delete internet content and lobbying Facebook to delete content to avoid being subject to fines or a usage block in Israel.

READ: Netanyahu’s son banned from Facebook over anti-Muslim posts

(Source / 21.12.2018)

Israel’s SodaStream to open factory in Gaza

SodaStream [Mike Mozart/Flickr]

Israeli firm SodaStream is to open a manufacturing plant in the Gaza Strip.

The plan was announced yesterday at Globes’ business conference, which hosted SodaStream CEO Daniel Birnbaum in conversation with Ramon Laguarta, the CEO of Pepsico – which bought SodaStream earlier this year for $3.2 billion. During the conversation, Birnbaum revealed:

We set up our plant in Rahat [north of Beersheba in the Negev desert], and I want to make it bigger and give more people hope, so we’re in the process of also putting a plant in Gaza, which will be operated through a subcontractor.

“We want people in Gaza to have real jobs, because when there is prosperity and plenty, there will also be peace,” Birnbaum added.

Birnbaum did not reveal any further details of the company’s plans or elaborate on who the subcontractor would be.

READ: USAID to cease operations in West Bank, Gaza within months

The announcement will likely raise eyebrows given that SodaStream was forced to close a plant it previously operated in the occupied West Bank due to pressure from the Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions (BDS) movement. SodaStream’s plant was formerly situated in Mishor Adumim – an illegal Israeli industrial park in the E1 area of the occupied West Bank that has since gained international attention amidst Israeli threats to demolish the Bedouin village of Khan Al-Ahmar.

In September 2015, SodaStream announced it would close its West Bank operations within two weeks, though Birnbaum sought to downplay the impact of BDS’ pressure, saying it had only a “marginal” effect on the business, labelling the movement anti-Semitic.

However, general coordinator of the Boycott National Committee (BNC, the Palestinian coordinating body for BDS), Mahmoud Nawajaa, said at the time that “SodaStream’s announcement today provides further proof that the BDS movement is increasingly able to hold corporate criminals to account for their role in Israeli apartheid and colonialism”.

Nawajaa was also critical of SodaStream’s decision to move its operations to Rahat, explaining:

Even when [the West Bank] closure goes ahead, SodaStream will remain implicated in the displacement of Palestinians. Its new Lehavim factory is close to Rahat, a planned township in the Naqab (Negev) desert, where Palestinian Bedouins are being forcefully transferred against their will. Sodastream, as a beneficiary of this plan, is complicit [in] this violation of human rights.

SodaStream was thrust into the international spotlight in 2014 after Jewish-American actress Scarlett Johansson quit her long-term role as an ambassador for UK-based charity Oxfam in order to become the face of the brand. Johansson’s spokesperson said in a statement that she and Oxfam had a “fundamental difference of opinion in regards to the boycott, divestment and sanctions [BDS] movement”.

Scarlett Johansson, Scarlett Ingrid Johansson is an American actress and singer on 7 December 2016 [Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff/Flickr]

For its part, Oxfam accepted Johansson’s resignation, saying that “while Oxfam respects the independence of our ambassadors [… it] believes that businesses, such as SodaStream, that operate in [illegal Israeli] settlements further the ongoing poverty and denial of rights of the Palestinian communities that we work to support.”

READ: Bernie Sanders, Dianne Feinstein join opposition to anti-BDS bill

(Source / 21.12.2018)

Israeli Soldiers Kill A Palestinian Teen Near Ramallah

21 Dec 1:56 AM

Israeli soldiers killed, on Thursday evening, a Palestinian teen from occupied Jerusalem, and injured two others, after opening fire at their car near Beit El military roadblock, north of the al-Biereh city, in the central West Bank governorate of Ramallah and al-Biereh.

Media sources said the slain teen has been identified as Qassem Mohammad Ali Abasi, 17, from Silwan town, south of Al-Aqsa Mosque in occupied Jerusalem.

The wounded Palestinians have been identified as Mohammad Hani al-Abasi, 28, and two teens; Mohammad Ma’moun Abasi and his brother Mahmoud. They suffered mild-to-moderate wounds, before the army detained them, and moved them to a hospital.

The Israeli army claimed that the driver of the car “broke through the military roadblock,” before the soldiers opened fire at the car, seriously injuring Qassem, who succumbed to his wounds, and added that “it is still investigating the incident.”

Palestinian sources said Qassem was in a car transporting four Palestinians, all carrying Jerusalem ID cards, and just after arriving at Beit El military roadblock, the soldiers suspected that the car “was involved in a shooting” targeting a bus station on the colonialist road #60, close to Ofra illegal colony, east of Ramallah, although  the distance between Ofra and Beit El is about 2 Kilometers, and the fatal shooting that killed Mohammad took place 40 minutes later.

Eyewitnesses said that members of Abasi family were driving two cars, returning to Jerusalem from Nablus, before one of the cars skidded due to the rain, and the soldiers opened fire at it.

The army closed Ofra junction after the alleged shooting at the bus station, and said that the soldiers fired back, before the army invaded Ein Yabrud nearby town.

Furthermore, the army completely closed various areas in the governorate, including the gate leading to the al-Jalazoun refugee camp, in addition to the towns of Deir Dibwan, Silwad, Doura al-Qare’, and Ein Siniya.

The soldiers also attacked many Palestinians at Ein Siniya Junction, north of Ramallah, after the army stopped and searched dozens of cars.

The soldiers also invaded Doura al-‘Qare’, and declared it a closed military zone, before storming and ransacking many shops, causing excessive damage after the soldiers claimed they were unable to find surveillance recordings in the stores.

The soldiers fired gas bombs and concussion grenades at many Palestinian protesters, and prevented journalists and medics from entering the town.

(Source / 21.12.2018)

Israeli Soldiers Attack The Weekly Procession In Bil’in

21 Dec 2:37 PM

Israeli soldiers attacked, Friday, the weekly nonviolent procession, carried out by Palestinians, accompanied by Israeli and international peace activists, in Bil’in village, west of the central West Bank city of Ramallah.

The procession started from the center of the village, heading towards the illegal Israeli Annexation Wall, separating the Palestinians from their lands, in Abu Lemon area.

The Popular Committee against the Wall and Colonies in Bil’in, said the soldiers resorted to the excessive use of force against the nonviolent protesters, and fired gas bombs and concussion grenades at them.

It added that the soldiers, stationed on military towers, took videos and pictures of the protesters.

The Palestinians, Israel and international supporters, denounced the ongoing and escalating Israeli violations against the Palestinians and their lands, and called for the release of all detainees, held by Israel, the return of the refugees and the liberation of Palestine, as started by various international resolutions.

(Source / 21.12.2018) 

PCHR: Weekly Report On Israeli Human Rights Violations in the Occupied Palestinian Territory (13 – 19 December 2018)

21 Dec 4:26 AM

Israeli forces continued with systematic crimes, in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt), for the week of 13 – 19 December, 2018.

Israeli forces killed Ashraf Na’alwah in a crime of extra-judicial execution. 2 civilians, including an elderly, were killed in Ramallah and al-Bireh. 24 Palestinian civilians were wounded, including 7 children and a journalist, in separate shooting incidents, in the occupied West Bank.

Israeli forces continued to use excessive force against the peaceful protestors in the Gaza Strip; 151 civilians, including 45 children, 9 women, 4 journalists, and 5 paramedics, were wounded; the injury of 4 of them was reported as serious.

Shooting:

In the Gaza Strip, the Israeli forces continued to use lethal force against the participants in the peaceful protests organized along the Gaza Strip borders, which witnessed the peaceful protests for the 38th week along the eastern and northern border area of the Gaza Strip.  They also continued to use armed force as well during the incursions into the West Bank.  In the West Bank, the Israeli forces killed 3 Palestinian civilians, including an elderly, and wounded 24 others, including 7 children and a journalist, in separate shooting incidents.  In the Gaza Strip, the Israeli forces wounded 154 civilians, including 45 children, 9 women, 4 journalists, and 5 paramedics.  The injury of 4 of those wounded was reported serious.

In the West Bank, on 13 December 2018, Israeli forces killed Hamdan al-‘Aardah (60) who was from ‘Arrabah village, south of Jenin, and lived in al-Bireh.  He was killed when he was driving his car in al-Bireh industrial area coming back home from his work.  When he approached the vehicles, an Israeli soldier opened fire at him, wounding his head with 2 bullets.  Israeli media claimed on its websites that he attempted to carry out a run-over attack, and the Israeli forces repeat such claims in similar killings.

On 14 December 2018, Mahmoud Yousif Nakhlah (18) from al-Jalazone refugee camp, north of Ramallah, was killed by the Israeli forces when he was participating in a peaceful protest at the main entrance of the camp.  One of the Israeli soldiers randomly and heavily opened fire at the demonstrators from a distance of 50 meters.  As a result, Mahmoud was hit with a bullet in the abdomen.

In the same context, the Israeli forces during the reporting period wounded 24 civilians, including 7 children and a journalist, in separate shooting incidents.

In the Gaza Strip, as part of using excessive force against the peaceful protesters along the Gaza Strip borders, during the reporting period, Israeli forces wounded 151 civilians, including 45 children, 9 women, 4 journalists, and 5 paramedics.  The injury of 4 of those wounded was reported serious.

Injuries in the Gaza Strip between 13 and 19 December 2018 According to the Governorate

GovernorateInjuries
TotalChildrenWomenJournalistsParamedicsCritical Injuries
Northern Gaza Strip51177124
Gaza City4030200
Central Gaza Strip43162030
Khan Younis830100
Rafah1060002
Total152459456

As part of targeting the Palestinian fishermen in the sea, the Israeli forces continued to escalate their attacks against the Palestinian fishermen, indicating the on-going Israeli policy to target their livelihoods.  During the reporting period, PCHR documented 12 incidents against fishermen.  As a result, 4 fishermen were arrested, including a child, and 2 of them were wounded in addition to confiscating their 2 boats while fishing.

As part of targeting the border areas on 18 December 2018, Israeli forces stationed in eastern al-Shija’iyah neighbourhood, east of Gaza City, opened fire at one of the bird hunters there.  As a result, he was hit with a bullet to the right leg.

Extra-judicial Execution Crimes:

On 13 December 2018, Israeli forces killed Ashraf Na’alwah (23) from Shweikah Suburb in Tulkarm when they moved into ‘ASkar al-Jadid refugee camp, northeast of Nablus, and heavily opened fire at him.  It should be noted that the Israeli forces had chased the above-mentioned civilian since 07 October 2018 on grounds of being accused of carrying out a shooting attack in Burkan Industrial Area, west of Salfit, and killing at the time 2 settlers and wounded a third one.  Eyewitnesses said that they did not hear any sound indicating occurrence of an exchange of fire in the building.

Incursions:

During the reporting period, Israeli forces conducted at least 134military incursions into Palestinian communities in the West Bank and 6 similar incursions into Jerusalem and its suburbs. During those incursions, Israeli forces arrested at least 108 Palestinians, including 15 children, a woman, a journalist and 2 PLC Members, in the West Bank.  Moreover, 50 others, including 3 children, were arrested in Jerusalem and its suburbs.

In the Gaza Strip, on 13 December 2018, Israeli forces moved 100 meters into the southern side of the border fence off “Zikim” Military base, northwest of Beit Lahia in the northern Gaza Strip.  The vehicles started levelling and combing the lands that were previously levelled amidst Israeli sporadic shooting.  On 19 December 2018, Israeli forces conducted a similar incursion into eastern al-Bureij in the central Gaza Strip.

Collective Punishment Measures:

As part of the collective punishment policy adopted by the Israeli forces against the  families of Palestinians accused of carrying out attacks against Israeli soldiers or/and settlers, on Tuesday early morning, 15 December 2018, the Israeli forces blew up a building belonging to the family of prisoner Islam Abu Hmeid in al-Am’ari refugee camp in central al-Bireh. .  The demolition came under the pretext that a marble stone was thrown on the head of an Israeli soldier during an incursion into the camp on 06 June 2018 and led to his death. Blowing up the building came two days following the Israeli Prime Minister Benyamin Netanyahu’s decision to expedite the demolitions of the houses belonging to Palestinians carrying out attacks. The building was comprised of 4 floors and built on an area of 150 square meters.  It should be mentioned that the Israeli forces demolished the house of the Abu Humaid family for the third time as the first time was in 1994 and the second in 2003.Moreover, the family of Abu Hamid had a son who was killed previously by the Israeli forces and has 6 prisoners serving their sentences in the Israeli prisons, the last one was Islam who was arrested on 13 June 2018.

On 17 December 2018, Israeli forces destroyed the internal and external walls of 2 floors in the 3-storey house belonging to the family of Ashraf Na’alwah in Shweikah Suburb, north of Tulkarm.  It should be noted that the abovementioned civilian was killed on 13 December 2018 in ‘Askar al-Jadid refugee camp, northeast of Nablus.

Israeli Forces continued to create a Jewish Majority in occupied East Jerusalem:

As part of the Israeli house demolitions and notices, on 16 December 2018, Yousif Qara’in self-demolished an under-construction room of 16 square meters in al-Farouq neighbourhood in al-Mukaber Mount village, south of occupied East Jerusalem, after the Israeli Municipality in the City handed him a demolition order.

On 18 December 2018, Israeli forces demolished 2 apartments ready for inhabitation that was owned by Amin ‘Aqeil in al-Farouq in al-Mukaber Mount village, south of occupied Jerusalem.  Each apartment was of 90 square meters and ready for his sons, Usamah and Haitham, to live in.

Israeli Forces continued their settlement activities, and the settlers continued their attacks against Palestinian civilians and their property

As part of the Israeli settlers’ attacks against the Palestinians civilians and their property, PCHR’s fieldworkers in the West Bank documented 31 attacks that were carried out by the Israeli settlers during the reporting period.  As a result, 5 civilians sustained wounds and bruises and 77 cars sustained damage.

Extra-Judicial Executions:

  • At approximately 01:30 on Thursday, 13 December 2018, large numbers of Israeli forces moved into ‘Askar al-Jadid refugee camp, northeast of Nablus, and stationed in the vicinity of a building belonging to Hussein Mohammed Bushkar. Many of them topped the roofs of the nearby buildings and surrounded the 3-storey building. Following that, heavy explosions and shooting were heard in the area.  At approximately 03:30, the Israeli soldiers took out a dead body from the second floor in the building , where there was an empty apartment, on a litter covered with a dark color cover.  The Israeli forces later declared that they managed to kill Ashraf Walid Soliman Na’alwah (23) from Shwikah Suburb in Tulkarm. The Israeli forces also arrested the 2 siblings Raied (36) and Amjad Hussain Mohamed Bushkar (45). Raied sustained wounds after Israeli dogs attacking him inside his apartment. Na’alwah had been chased by the Israeli forces since 07 October 2018 on grounds of being accused of carrying out a shooting attack in Burkan Industrial Area, west of Salfit, and killing at the time 2 settlers and wounded a third one. Since that day, the Israeli forces carried out dozens of incursions against villages, cities and camps in northern West Bank, where they threatened civilians to be punished if they help Na’alwah or supply him with food. The Israeli forces’ chasing resulted in the killing of Mohammed Habali (22), from Tulkarm, on 04 December 2018. It should be noted that Mohammed is a person with disabilities.

Collective Punishment:

  • As part of Continuing to Apply Collective Punishment Policy against Families of Those Carrying Attacks against Soldiers and Settlers, on Saturday early morning, 15 December 2018, the Israeli forces blew up a building belonging to the family of prisoner Islam Abu Hmeid in al-Am’ari refugee camp in central al-Bireh.  Blowing up the building came two days after the Israeli Prime Minister Benyamin Netenyahu’s decision to expedite the demolitions of the houses belonging to Palestinians carrying out attacks. According to PCHR’s investigations and eyewitnesses’ accounts, at approximately 01:30 on the abovementioned day, Israeli forces backed by military vehicles and around 150 soldiers moved into al-Am’ari refugee camp in central al-Bireh.  The soldiers stepped out of their military vehicles and deployed between houses while around 30 of them topped the roofs of many houses.  A large number of the Israeli soldiers raided a residential building belonging to the family of prisoner Islam Abu Hmeid to apply the demolition decision which the family was informed of previously under the pretext that a marble stone was thrown on the head of an Israeli soldier during an incursion into the camp on 06 June 2018 and led to his death. Dozens of the camp’s residents and Palestinian activists along with International human rights defenders and Chairman of the Colonization and Wall Resistance Commission, Minister Waleed ‘Assaf, stood in front of the building attempting to prevent the demolition.  However, The Israeli soldiers forced them, including the 60-year-old mother of Islam, who was alone living in the building, to evacuate the building by firing sound bombs and teargas canisters directly at them while they were inside. The Israeli soldiers also beat up and pushed them, including photojournalist Mohammed Hamdan after breaking his cell phone, with the firearms’ muzzles. Following that, a large number of Israeli soldiers raided and searched the residential houses in the vicinity of the building. They forced the residents to evacuate them immediately and forcibly, causing fear among them.  The residents were forced to leave towards al-Bireh School, in the center of the camp, where they were detained for 3 consecutive hours before the Palestine Red Crescent Society (PRCS) crews were allowed to transfer them to the PRCS office adjacent to the camp. They were more than 500 civilians, including children, women and elderlies, detained in a very cold place. In the meantime, dozens of young men and boys gathered and threw stones and empty bottles at Israeli soldiers who deployed throughout the camp. The soldiers fired heavily rubber bullets and tear gas canisters at them, wounding 6 young men with rubber bullets in addition to other civilians and journalists suffering tear gas inhalation and fainting. Meanwhile, an Israeli military force was demolishing the internal walls of the building with special equipment and planting a large quantity of explosives inside it in preparation for blowing it up. At approximately 06:50, the 150-square-meter building comprised of 4 floors was blown up and completely destroyed. It is noteworthy that the Israeli forces demolished the house of the Abu Humaid family for the third time as the first time was in 1994 and the second in 2003.  Moreover, the family of Abu Hamid had a son who was killed previously by the Israeli forces and has 6 prisoners serving their sentences in the Israeli prisons, the last one was Islam who was arrested on 13 June 2018.
  • At approximately 02:10 on the abovementioned day, the Israeli forces backed by 40 military vehicles, 2 bulldozers, around 170 soldiers and drones moved into Shuwikah Suburb, north of Tulkarm. The soldiers stepped out of their military vehicles and deployed between houses in Na’alwah neighborhood while 50 of them topped the roofs of many houses. Around 100 soldiers raided a 3-story residential building belonging to Ashraf Walid Suleiman Na’alwah in an attempt to apply the demolition decision while a number of civilians and journalists were inside it. After the Israeli soldiers forced those who were in the house to evacuate it at gunpoint, they deployed in the 3 floors and thoroughly searched the house using a large number of police dogs. The engineering units put signs on the ground floor walls, which consisted of 3 bedrooms, a living room, a kitchen and 2 bathrooms, and then around 100 soldiers demolished the walls by a bulldozer and hand hammers. Following that, the Israeli forces moved into the underground floor, which was inhabited by Ashraf, and consisted of 2 rooms, a kitchen and a bathroom, and demolished it in the same way. During the demolition, the Israeli forces attempted to prevent around 30 journalists, who were in the area, from photographing the area. The soldiers chased them on houses’ roofs more than once and fired sound bombs and tear gas canisters at them. As a result, journalist Mo’een Shadeed, a reporter at Palestine TV Channel, fainted and received medical treatment on the spot. At approximately 09:40, the Israeli forces fired a barrage of sound bombs and tear gas canisters at the civilians, who gathered in the area.

Use of Force against Demonstrations in Protest against the U.S. President’s Decision to Recognize Jerusalem as the Capital of Israel:

Israeli forces continued its excessive use of lethal force against peaceful demonstration organized by Palestinian civilians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, and it was named as “The Great March of Return and Breaking Siege.” The demonstration was in protest against the U.S. President Donald Trump’s declaration to move the U.S. Embassy to it. According to PCHR fieldworkers’ observations, the border area witnessed large participation by Palestinian civilians as the Israeli forces continued to use upon highest military and political echelons excessive force against the peaceful demonstrators, though the demonstration were fully peaceful. The demonstration was as follows during the reporting period:

Gaza Strip:

In the Thirty-Seven week of the March of Return and Breaking Siege activities, Israeli forces wounded 151 civilians, including 45 children, 9 women, 4 journalists and 5 paramedics. Doctors classified 4 civilians’ injuries as serious. The incidents were as follows:

  • The Northern Gaza Strip: 30 civilians, including 10 children, a woman and 2 paramedics, were wounded. Seventeen of them were hit live bullets and their shrapnel, 2 were hit with rubber bullets and 11 were hit with tear gas canisters. Doctors classified 2 civilians’ injuries as serious. The wounded paramedics were identified as:
  1. Wafa’a Omer Khamis Jaber (23), a volunteer paramedic at the Palestinian Ministry of Health, was hit with a rubber bullet to the left elbow.
  2. Mohammed husni Abdul Latif al-Haw (22), a paramedic at the Military Medical Services, was hit with a tear gas canister to the head.
  • Gaza City: 40 civilians, including 3 children, and 2 journalists, were wounded. Nineteen of them were hit with live bullets and their shrapnel, 14 were hit with rubber bullets and 7 were hit with tear gas canisters. The wounded journalists were identified as ‘Atiyah Mohammed ‘Ali Darwish (31), a journalist at Al-Ray Media Agency, was hit with a tear gas canister to the left eye; and Mustafa Mahmoud Hasounah, a photojournalist at the Anadolu Agency, was hit with a tear gas canister to the right leg.
  • Central Gaza Strip: the Israeli forces firing live bullets and tear gas canisters, which continued until approximately 17:00, resulted in the injury of 43 civilians, including 2 women, 16 children, 3 paramedics. Twenty seven of them were hit with live bullets and their shrapnel and 16 were hit with tear gas canisters. The wounded paramedics were identified as:
  1. Mahmoud Ibrahim Mohammed Thabet (24), was hit with a tear gas canister to the left thigh;
  2. Ahmed Ismail Mohammed Abu Rayah (22), was with a tear gas canister to the abdomen; and
  3. Mohammed Saber Abdullah Hmaid (25), was hit with a tear gas canister to the right foot.
  • Khan Younis: 8 civilians, including 3 children and a journalist, were wounded. The wounded journalist identified as Hasan Abdul Fattah Mohammed Slaih (30), was hit with a tear gas canister to the right foot.
  • Rafah: 10 civilians, including 6 children, were wounded. Four of them were hit with live bullets and their shrapnel, including a deaf-mute person, and 6 were hit with tear gas canisters. Doctors classified 2 civilians’ injury as serious.
  • At approximately 14:00 on Monday, 17 December 2018, Israeli gunboats stationed offshore, and Israeli forces stationed along the border fence between the Gaza Strip and Israel, opened fire and fired sound bombs at dozens of Palestinian civilians who were at the Return camp along the border coastal, adjacent to adjacent to “Zikim” military base, northwest of Beit Lahia in the northern Gaza Strip. It should be noted that this is the 19thtime for Palestinian boats to sail for Breaking the Siege. As a result, 21 civilians, including 7 children, 6 woman, and a journalist, were wounded. Three of them were hit with live bullets and their shrapnel, 9 were hit with rubber bullets and 9 were hit with tear gas canisters. Doctors classified two civilian s ‘ injury as serious while the other civilians’ injuries were between minor and moderate. The wounded journalist identified as Tha’er Khalid Fehmi Abu Rayash (24), a freelance journalist was hit with a tear gas canister to the abdomen.

West Bank:

  • At approximately 17:00 on Thursday, 13 December 2018, a number of Palestinian children and youngsters gathered at the road leading to al-Fawar refugee camp, south of Hebron. An Israeli infantry unit patrolled the agricultural lands surrounding the road. They threw stones at Israeli soldiers and closed the road by iron barricades and rocks. The soldiers fired sound bombs and tear gas canisters at them. The clashes continued until approximately 18:00, as the soldiers randomly fired live bullets at the stone throwers claiming that the military watchtower established at the camp entrance was targeted with a Molotov Cocktail. As a result, an 18-year-old civilian was hit with a live bullet that penetrated the back. He was transferred to al-Ahli Hospital in Hebron and doctors classified his injury as settled.
  • At approximately 15:30 on Friday, 14 December 2018, Israeli forces accompanied with a number of military vehicles moved into al-Jalazoun refugee camp, north of Ramallah and stationed near the walls of al-Jalazoun Secondary School belonging to the UNRWA and established at the main entrance to the camp. Dozens of Palestinian youngsters and young men gathered and threw stones and empty bottles at Israeli soldiers. The soldiers fired live and rubber bullets, sound bombs and tear gas canisters at them. At approximately 16:20, a soldier suddenly moved forward and heavily and randomly opened fire at the protestors from an area of 50 meters. As a result, Mahmoud Yusuf Nakhlah (18) was hit with a live bullet to the abdomen and fell on the ground while bleeding. He was transferred via a PRCS ambulance to Palestine Medical Complex in the city and his health condition was classified as very serious. Mahmoud was admitted to the surgery room to underwent a surgery. At approximately 17:30, doctors announced Mahmoud. It should be noted that Mahmoud is the only son in his family, which is comprised of his father and mother. The shooting also resulted in the injury of a child.
  • At approximately 17:00, a number of Palestinian young men gathered in al-Zawiyah Gate in the center of Hebron, and threw stones and empty bottles at the Military Checkpoint (56) established at the entrance to al-Shuhada’a Street. Israeli soldiers fired sound bombs and tear gas canisters and chased the young men on Beir al-Hums Street. They also randomly fired rubber bullets at the young men. As a result, journalist Mos’ab Abdul Samad Hamed Shawer al-Tamimi (29) was hit with a rubber bullet to the right hand. He received medical treatment on the spot. It should be noted that Mos’ab works as a freelance journalist.

Following table illustrates temporary and permanent checkpoints and arrests at these checkpoints in the West Bank from 13-19 December 2018:

GovernoratePermanent temporaryTemporary checkpointsClosed RoadsArrested persons
Jerusalem138
Nablus102221
Jenin58
Ramallah11282
Tulkarm784
Tubas231
Salfit3821
Qalqiliyia51021
Hebron314132
Bethlehem11204
Jericho51
Total103157205
  • House Demolitions and Notices:
  • On Sunday, 16 December 2018, Yousef Mohamed Qara’een self-demolished an under-construction room in al-Farouq neighborhood in al-Mukaber Mount village, south of occupied East Jerusalem, after the Israeli Municipality handed him a demolition notice. The room was built on an area of 16 square meters and Yousef was intending to live in it along with his wife.
  • On Tuesday, 18 December 2018, Israeli forces accompanied with the Israeli Municipality bulldozers moved into al-Farouq neighborhood in al-Mukaber Mount area, south of occupied Jerusalem. The Israeli forces surrounded two 90-sqaure-meter residential apartments belonging to Ameen Ahmed Hussain ‘Oqail (60) and then demolished them completely. Ameen’s losses were estimated at half a million shekels. It should be noted that ‘Ameen’s sons Osama and Hitham were intending to live in those apartments after get married. The family clarified that they attempted to license the apartments by heading to the municipality court and then to District and Supreme Courts, but the license request was refused or delaying the administrative demolition decision.  The family added that the demolition was carried out without a prior warning, pointing out that the municipality refused to license the apartments and the Israeli Supreme Court refused on 12 December 2018 the family petition against the demolition decision.

Settlement activities and attacks by settlers against Palestinian civilians and property

Israeli settlers’ attack:

  • On Thursday, 13 December 2018, a group of Israeli settlers surrounded with barbed wires a plot of land located in Wad al-Hussain area in the eastern area of Hebron, near “ Kiryat ‘Arba’” settlement. The settlers used hand tools to establish a footpath and facilitate the settlers’ access to the abovementioned settlement. A large force of Israeli soldiers arrived at the area to prevent the lands’ owners from access their lands.
  • Following the armed attack, which was carried out on 13 December 2018, near “Giv’at” and “Assaf” settlements, northeast of al-Bierh, dozens of Israeli settlers gathered on Hawarah-Za’tarah Street, south of Nablus, and carried out riots on the street. They also threw stones at Palestinian civilians’ vehicles. As a result, many vehicles’ windshield were broken. The affected vehicles belong to:
  • Nabil As’ad Saleh ‘Abdullah, from Nablus: Broking the vehicle’s windshield and lights and damaging its body.
  • Hani Mizher Suliman Shurrab (26), from ‘Orta village, southeast of Nablus: Broking the vehicle’s windshield and another side window in addition to wounding the diver with a stone, so he was taken to Rafidia Hospital.
  • Tareq Nazzal: Broking the vehicle’s windshield and another side window.
  • Al-Jawhar Company for fodders: Damaging a truck belonging to Jawhar ‘Abdullah Haniny Abu Ghalamah.
  • Damaging a public vehicle its owner is still un-known.
  • Hussain Abu Medighem, from Rahit city: Broking the vehicle’s windshield and another side window.
  • Ibrahim Mahmoud Ibrahim al-Az’ar, from Qablan village, southeast of Nablus: Broking the vehicle’s windshield and another side window.
  • At approximately 13:30, a group of Israeli settlers, from “Yatizhar” settlement, attacked the outskirts of ‘Asirah al-Qabaliyia village, south of Nablus. The Israeli settlers threw stones at a house belonging to ‘Abed al-Baset Mohamed ‘Abed al-Rahman Ahmed in Bir ‘Asirah area. As a result, 4 windows of his house were broken. Meanwhile, a group of Palestinian young men gathered and confronted the settlers by throwing stones at them. As a result, Mohamed ‘Abed al-Baset Mohamed ‘Abed al-Rahman Ahmed (22), was hit with a stone to the head; and ‘Isaa Mohamed Hamdan (20), was hit with a stone at his head, causing him skull fracture. ‘Isaa was then taken to Rafidia Hospital to receive medical treatment.
  • At approximately 14:00, a group of Israeli settlers gathered on the main street near Kafur Laqef village, east of Qalqiliyia, and threw stones at Palestinian civilians’ vehicles, but no injuries among Palestinian civilians were reported.
  • At approximately 15:00, a group of Israeli settlers gathered on the main street near Amateen village, northeast of Qalqiliyi, and threw stones at Palestinian civilians’ vehicles, but no injuries among Palestinian civilians were reported.
  • At approximately 16:30, Ayman ‘Abed al-Kareem Salman Suhlob (49) sustained bruises and wounds to his head after attacking him by a group of Israeli settler while he was returning to his house in Hebron. Ayman headed to al-Ahli Hospital to receive medical treatment.
  • At approximately 19:00, a group of Israeli settlers moved into Jeet village, northeast of Qalqiliyia. After that, the Israeli forces moved into the village and fired sound bombs and tear gas canisters at Palestinian civilians, who attempted to confront the settlers.
  • Around the same time, dozens of Israeli settlers gathered near the intersection of Osreen village on ‘Aber al-Samirah (505) Street, southeast of Nablus. The settlers threw stones at a truck and broke its windshield. The truck belongs to Mohamed Nimer Isma’il ‘Odah, from Qasrrah village, southeast of the city.
  • At approximately 19:30, a group of Israeli settlers, from “Yatizhar” settlement, south of Nablus, attacked the outskirts of Bureen village. The settlers threw stones at 2 houses belonging to Bashar Waleed Mostafa al-Najjar and Marwan Mostafa Najjar. As a result, some of the houses windows were broken while the windows of 2 vehicles parking in the vicinity of the house were broken as well. The 2 vehicles belong to Mohamed Yousef ‘Asfour and Mohamed al-Hendi.
  • At approximately 19:40, a group of Israeli settlers attacked a stolen car garage on the main street in Hawarah village, south of Nablus. They damaged the windows of 10 vehicles parked inside the garage, which belongs to ‘Ayid Mahmoud Hasan Mohareb, from Hawarah.
  • At approximately 20:00, a group of Israeli settlers, from “’ Ofra “settlement attacked villages located in northeastern of Ramallah. The attacked villages were identified as Yabroud, ‘Ain Yabroud, Silwad, Ramoun, and Barqah villages. The Israeli settlers punctured the tires of 10 vehicles with sharp tools and carried out riots on the village streets. The abovementioned villages witnessed several attacks until Saturday evening, 15 December 2018, by the Israeli settlers in addition to throwing stones at Palestinian civilians’ houses and vehicles.
  • At approximately 21:00, a group of Israeli settlers, from “Yatizhar” settlement, attacked the outskirts of ‘Orta village, southeast of Nablus. The settlers threw stones at a house belonging to ‘isaa al-‘Ajouri near ‘Orta Crossing. As a result, the house windows were broken.
  • At approximately 14:00 on Friday, 14 December 2018, a group of Israeli settlers stationed in Daher al-Subeh area, which belongs to Kafur al-Deek village, west of Salfit, attacked ‘Odai Raied Saleem Abu Saif (24), from Bidiyia village, northwest of the city, while he was present in the abovementioned area. It should be noted that ‘Odai’s brother was missing in the area, where his family comprising of 12 members were having launch before attacking them by the settlers. Odai’s brother was found later while Odai was wounded by a dog bite and then taken to Yaser ‘Arafat Hospital in Salfit. Odai’s father, Raied Saleem Abu Saif, said to PCHR’s fieldworker that: “At approximately 14:00 on Friday, 14 December 2018, I headed along with my family comprising of 12 members to Daher Subeh area, believing it was a safe area, in order to collect the wild leaves, While we were having launch, a group of armed Israeli settlers came into the area, some of them had “traktoron” and others with dogs, and then shouted at us to leave the area, claiming that those lands belong to them. We stood up to leave, meanwhile, the dogs attacked us, so all of the family members fled towards the mountain. My son ‘Odai was wounded by a dog bite to his foot. I told the settlers that I will call the component authorities and tell them about what happened to punish them. One of the settlers called the Israeli forces, who came after 15 minutes. The Israeli officer interrogated me and asked about my ID card. I refused to give him my ID card, telling him that he should take the settlers’ ID cards as well because they started attacking us. I also told him that my son was wounded and I want to treat him immediately. An Israeli doctor came to treat my son ‘Odai, but he remained in pain. The Israeli forces took my ID card number. After that, I left the area and took my son to Badiyia Medical Center, where doctor referred him to Salfit Governmental Hospital. When we arrived at the house, I missed my son Yaser (13). We were believing that Yaser along with her brothers at the hospital and his brothers were believing that Yaser was with us. After that, the Palestinian security services along with the village’s residents were looking for Yaser. Two hours later, we found him unconscious in a ferry near the area where we were. When the night came and he was alone and hid in the ferry. We then took him to the hospital in Salfit, where he woke up there. He was suffering from what happened with him and became an introverted person.”
  • In afternoon, between 10 to 12 Israeli settlers attacked Nedal al-Faqieh (39), from occupied East Jerusalem, causing fractures to him around his eye in addition to other bruises and bleeding. Nedal said that while he was driving a bus belonging to the Israeli Kavim Company in “Modi’in Illit” settlement, two Israeli settlers intercepted his way and cursed him. Nedal called the police, informing him about what happened and asking them to come into the area. He added that he drove the bus towards the parking, but the Israeli settlers managed to get into the bus and then assaulted him. In the meantime, one of Nedal’s friends immediately came and helped him. After that, a group of Israeli settlers suddenly raided the bus and severely beat Nedal. They then fled before the police arrival.
  • At approximately 14:50 on Friday, 14 December 2018, a group of Israeli settlers, who were driving a car with an Israeli registration plate, attacked another Palestinian car on Ramallah Road near Mo’arajat al-Laban, south of Nablus. As a result, the windshield of the Palestinian car was broken. This car belongs to Khader Isma’il ‘Owis, from al-Laban eastern village.
  • At approximately 18:00, a group of Israeli settlers gathered on the main street near the entrance to Amateen village, northeast of Qalqiliyia. The settlers threw stones at Palestinian vehicles passing on the street, but no injuries among Palestinian civilians were reported.
  • On Saturday, 15 December 2018, a number of Israeli settlers, from “Ifrat” settlement, south of Bethlehem, attacked Palestinian civilians’ vehicles passing on the bypass road (60) with stones and empty bottles, causing fear among them. It should be noted that the Israeli forces stationed on the street, but they did not do anything to stop the settlers.
  • At approximately 20:30, a group of Israeli settlers gathered on the main street near the entrance to Jeet, northeast of Qalqiliyia. They threw stones at Palestinian civilians’ vehicles travelling on the street, but no injuries among Palestinian civilians were reported.
  • Around the same time, a group of Israeli settlers gathered near ‘Inab checkpoint, east of Tulkarm, and then threw stones at Palestinian civilians’ vehicles travelling on the street, but no injuries among Palestinian civilians were reported.
  • At approximately 20:40, a group of Israeli settlers gathered on the main street at the entrance to Amateen village, northeast of Qalqiliyia, and then threw stones at Palestinian civilians’ vehicles travelling on the street, but no injuries among Palestinian civilians were reported.
  • At approximately 21:00, Moneer Saleh Isma’il ‘Odah, from Hawarah village, south of Nablus, was driving his car and heading towards al-Labbab eastern village, south of the city. When Moneer arrived at al-Sawiyia village’s intersection, he was surprised with a car belonging to Israeli settlers. The Israeli settlers threw stones at Moneer’s car and the windshield of his car was broken.
  • At approximately 22:00, a group of Israeli settlers attacked Kafur Qaddoum village, northeast of Qalqiliyia, from the eastern side. This coincided with the Israeli forces’ storming to the village in order to provide protection for the Israeli settlers. The village residents confronted the settlers, meanwhile, the Israeli forces fired rubber bullets and tear gas canisters at the residents. As a result, a 20-year-old male was hit with a rubber bullet to the right leg and 22 other civilians suffered tear gas inhalation.
  • At approximately 22:30, a group of Israeli settlers stationed near the entrance to Yasouf village, which leads to Salfit, attacked Palestinian civilians’ vehicles travelling on the street. A large number of Israeli settlers rode their motorcycles and chased Palestinian civilians’ vehicles. The Israeli settlers threw stones and iron bars at the Palestinian vehicles, but no injuries were reported.
  • At approximately 11:50 on Sunday, 16 December 2018, three Israeli settlers stationed behind the wall of Bureeq Secondary School, which is located at the eastern entrance to Bureen village, south of Nablus, fired shot in air, causing fear among students. Following that, the headmaster was forced to end the school day fearing for the students’ lives and then the students left the school.
  • At approximately 12:20 on Sunday, Israeli settlers, under the Israeli forces’ protection, attacked the Laban- al-Sawiyia Mixed School. As a result, the education institution was forced to evacuate the school fearing for the students’ lives. The Israeli forces claimed that an Israeli female settler was hit with a stone near the school. After that, an Israeli settler stationed at the entrance to al-Labban village and started firing shots into the air.
  • At approximately 19:00 on Monday, 17 December 2018, a group of Israeli settlers, under the Israeli forces’ protection, moved into Mar Saba area, east of Bethlehem, and performed their Talmudic rituals. The settlers’ arrival at this area came as a prelude to celebrate Jewish Holidays.
  • At approximately 01:00 on Tuesday, 18 December 2018, a group of Israeli settlers moved into Yasouf village, east of Salfit. The settlers attacked Palestinian vehicles parked in front of their owners’ houses. The settlers also wrote slogans against Arabs and Muslims on the walls of Abu Baker Mosque and on the walls of a house belonging to Ahmed ‘Izzat Mohamed ‘Abed al-Fattah, in addition to wrote slogans on vehicles. The settlers also punctured the tires of 24 vehicles belonging to Palestinian civilians, whose names are kept by PCHR.
  • At approximately 19:30 on Tuesday, a group of Israeli settlers, under the Israeli forces’ protection, attacked a truck at the entrance to “Shavei Shamron “ settlement, west of Nablus, and damaged its windshield. The truck belongs to Jehad Naser Ahmed Abu Baker, from Ya’boud village, southwest of Jenin. It should be noted that Jehad was returning from Hebron.
  • On Wednesday, 19 December 2018, the residents of Gharablah neighborhood in Beit Haninah village, which is adjacent to “Pisgat Ze’ev“settlement, were surprised with puncturing the tires of 20 vehicles belonging to the residents of the Arabs neighborhood in East Jerusalem, in addition to writing slogan “Death to the Arabs” on the vehicles.
  • At approximately 02:30 on Tuesday, 11 December 2018, a group of Israeli settlers attacked 3 vehicles belonging to civilians, from Biteen village, east of Ramallah. The settlers wrote racist slogans on the vehicles and punctured their tires.

Recommendations to the International Community:

  1. PCHR calls upon the international community to respect the Security Council’s Resolution No. 2334 and to ensure that Israel respects it as well, in particular point 5 which obliges Israel not to deal with settlements as if they were part of Israel.
  2. PCHR calls upon the ICC to continue to investigate the Israeli crimes committed in the oPt, particularly the settlement crimes and grave violations in the Gaza Strip.
  3. PCHR Calls upon the European Union (EU) and all international bodies to boycott settlements and ban working and investing in them in application of their obligations according to international human rights law and international humanitarian law considering settlements as a war crime.
  4. PCHR calls upon the international community to use all available means to allow the Palestinian people to enjoy their right to self-determination through the establishment of the Palestinian State, which was recognized by the UN General Assembly with a vast majority, using all international legal mechanisms, including sanctions to end the occupation of the State of Palestine.
  5. PCHR calls upon the international community and United Nations to take all necessary measures to stop Israeli policies aimed at creating a Jewish demographic majority in Jerusalem and at voiding Palestine from its original inhabitants through deportations and house demolitions as a collective punishment, which violates international humanitarian law, amounting to a crime against humanity.
  6. PCHR calls upon the States Parties to the Rome Statute of the ICC to work hard to hold Israeli war criminals accountable.
  7. PCHR calls upon the High Contracting Parties to the Geneva Conventions to fulfill their obligations under article (1) of the Convention to ensure respect for the Conventions under all circumstances, and under articles (146) and (147) to search for and prosecute those responsible for committing grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions to ensure justice and remedy for Palestinian victims, especially in light of the almost complete denial of justice for them before the Israeli judiciary.
  8. PCHR calls for a prompt intervention to compel the Israeli authorities to lift the closure that obstructs the freedom of movement of goods and 1.8 million civilians that experience unprecedented economic, social, political and cultural hardships due to collective punishment policies and retaliatory action against civilians.
  9. PCHR calls upon the European Union to apply human rights standards embedded in the EU-Israel Association Agreement and to respect its obligations under the European Convention on Human Rights when dealing with Israel.
  10. PCHR calls upon the parties to international human rights instruments, especially the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), to pressurize Israel to comply with its provisions in the oPt and to compel it to incorporate the human rights situation in the oPt in its reports submitted to the relevant committees.
  11. PCHR calls upon the EU and international human rights bodies to pressurize the Israeli forces to stop their attacks against Palestinian fishermen and farmers, mainly in the border area.

Fully detailed document available at the Palestinian Centre for Human Rights (PCHR).

(Source / 21.12.2018)

FATHER OF ONE OF THE HARES BOYS IS ON HUNGER-STRIKE

Father of one of the five Hares boys, Mohammed Suleiman, is on a hunger strike demanding that the Jordanian government negotiates with Israel to arrange him to see his son. Israel has not allowed the elder Mohammed Mahdi Suleiman, who is a Jordanian citizen, to see his son who has been a captive of the occupation since March 2013. Mohammed Suleiman was arrested and tortured at age 15 until he ‘confessed’ along with four other boys to ‘stone-throwing’ – that according to Israeli occupation prosecutor would have indirectly led to a traffic accident between illegal Israeli settlers, in which one child suffered serious injuries and died of them two years later. In December 2015 the Hares boys were convicted to 15 years in prison by Israeli occupation military court. PHOTO & INFO: شبكة قدس الإخبارية. To read more about the Hares boys, download a free e-book, visit a dedicated site and read our most recent post about them here at our WordPress blog: Month of Innocent Children: THE HARES BOYS.#FreeHaresBoys #HaresBoys #NoWayToTreatAChild

   (Source / 21.12.2018)